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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.34 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.47 2008/05/02 08:04:23 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.5</version> 11<version>9.1</version>
12<date>2006-02-27</date> 12<date>2008-05-02</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 16
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p>
34
35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
38about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
39simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
40randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
41</p>
42
43</body>
44</subsection> 17<subsection>
18<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19</subsection>
20
45<subsection> 21<subsection>
46<title>Partitions</title> 22<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 23<body>
48 24
49<p> 25<p>
62<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 38<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
63<body> 39<body>
64 40
65<p> 41<p>
66If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 42If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
67you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book: 43you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
44filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
45installing on.
46</p>
47
48</body>
49</subsection>
50<subsection>
51<title>Apple New World</title>
52<body>
53
68</p> 54<p>
55Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
56partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
57of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next
58partition should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a
59small (800k) HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its
60configuration file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a
61<path>/boot</path> partition as found on other architectures. After the boot
62partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
63below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
64runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
65that Gentoo is installed on. If you wish to dual boot, the OSX partition
66can go anywhere after the bootstrap partition to insure that yaboot starts
67first.
68</p>
69
70<note>
71There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
72<path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
73<path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
74<path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no
75need for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with mac-fdisk's
76<c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt,
77just let them be.
78</note>
79
80<note>
81If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
82128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
83can safely remove these.
84</note>
69 85
70<table> 86<table>
71<tr> 87<tr>
72 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
73 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 88 <th>Partition</th>
75 <th>Partition RS/6000</th> 89 <th>Size</th>
76 <th>Filesystem</th> 90 <th>Filesystem</th>
91 <th>Description</th>
92</tr>
93<tr>
94 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
95 <ti>32k</ti>
96 <ti>None</ti>
97 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
98</tr>
99<tr>
100 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
101 <ti>800k</ti>
102 <ti>HFS</ti>
103 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
104</tr>
105<tr>
106 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
107 <ti>512Mb</ti>
108 <ti>Swap</ti>
109 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
110</tr>
111<tr>
112 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
113 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
114 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
115 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
116</tr>
117</table>
118
119</body>
120</subsection>
121<subsection>
122<title>Apple Old World</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
127partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
128of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
129BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
130disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
131Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
132Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
133using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
134other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
135are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
136storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
137partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
138</p>
139
140<note>
141If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
142The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
143</note>
144
145<table>
146<tr>
147 <th>Partition</th>
77 <th>Size</th> 148 <th>Size</th>
149 <th>Filesystem</th>
78 <th>Description</th> 150 <th>Description</th>
79</tr> 151</tr>
80<tr> 152<tr>
81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 153 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
85 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
86 <ti>32k</ti> 154 <ti>32k</ti>
155 <ti>None</ti>
87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 156 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
88</tr>
89<tr> 157</tr>
158<tr>
90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 159 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 160 <ti>32Mb</ti>
92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 161 <ti>ext2</ti>
93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 162 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 163</tr>
164<tr>
165 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
166 <ti>512Mb</ti>
167 <ti>Swap</ti>
168 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
169</tr>
170<tr>
171 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
172 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
173 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
174 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
175</tr>
176</table>
177
178</body>
179</subsection>
180<subsection>
181<title>Pegasos</title>
182<body>
183
184<p>
185The Pegasos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
186The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
187along with an Open Firmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
188partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
189below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
190runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
191that Gentoo is installed on.
192</p>
193
194<table>
195<tr>
196 <th>Partition</th>
197 <th>Size</th>
198 <th>Filesystem</th>
199 <th>Description</th>
200</tr>
201<tr>
202 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
203 <ti>32Mb</ti>
204 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
205 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
206</tr>
207<tr>
208 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
209 <ti>512Mb</ti>
210 <ti>Swap</ti>
211 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
212</tr>
213<tr>
214 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
215 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
216 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
217 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
218</tr>
219</table>
220
221</body>
222</subsection>
223<subsection>
224<title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
225<body>
226
227<p>
228The IBM PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) requires a small PReP boot partition
229on the disk's first partition, followed by the swap and root partitions.
230</p>
231
232<table>
233<tr>
234 <th>Partition</th>
235 <th>Size</th>
236 <th>Filesystem</th>
237 <th>Description</th>
238</tr>
239<tr>
240 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
95 <ti>800k</ti> 241 <ti>800k</ti>
96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 242 <ti>None</ti>
97</tr> 243 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
98<tr> 244</tr>
99 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
100 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
104 <ti>800k</ti>
105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
106</tr> 245<tr>
107<tr>
108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
111 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32MB</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
115</tr>
116<tr>
117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti> 246 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
122 <ti>512M</ti> 247 <ti>512Mb</ti>
123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti> 248 <ti>Swap</ti>
124</tr> 249 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
125<tr> 250</tr>
126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 251<tr>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti> 252 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 253 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti> 254 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
255 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
133</tr> 256</tr>
134</table> 257</table>
135 258
136<note>
137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
141initializing the partition map.
142</note>
143
144<warn> 259<warn>
145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is 260<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
146not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in 261may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
147Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous, 262results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
148so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data 263resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
149before resizing! 264have a backup of your data before resizing!
150</warn> 265</warn>
151 266
152<p> 267<p>
153If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many 268If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
154partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 269partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
155<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk 270<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
156</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to 271</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
166<p> 281<p>
167The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 282The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
168if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 283if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
169<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 284<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
170If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path> 285If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
171should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good 286should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
172choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have 287choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
173a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The 288have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
174reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will 289reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
175definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the 290you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
176majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB 291will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
177excluding the various sources that are stored in it. 292more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
178</p> 293</p>
179 294
180<p> 295<p>
181As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 296As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
182partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 297partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
218<p> 333<p>
219At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 334At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
220</p> 335</p>
221 336
222<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk"> 337<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
223# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i> 338# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
224</pre> 339</pre>
225 340
226<p> 341<p>
227First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 342If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
228Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 343partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
229It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple 344<c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
230machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted. 345partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
231</p> 346(Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted. If you would like to start with a
232 347clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
348will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
233<p> 349</p>
350
351<p>
234On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. 352Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
235It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first 353ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
236free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>. 354partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
237</p> 355</p>
238 356
239<note> 357<note>
240This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by 358This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
241Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never 359Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
245<p> 363<p>
246Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 364Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
247ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c> 365ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
248before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 366before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
249<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 367<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
250you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter 368you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
251<c>swap</c> (mandatory). 369is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
252</p> 370</p>
253 371
254<p> 372<p>
255To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select 373To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
256from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 374from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
257<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 375<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
258space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 376space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
259</p> 377</p>
260 378
261<p> 379<p>
262To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 380To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
263quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 381quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
264</p> 382</p>
265 383
266<note> 384<note>
267To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check 385To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
268whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions 386whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions
269you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions 387you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions
270by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map 388by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
271and thus remove all your partitions. 389and thus remove all your partitions.
272</note> 390</note>
273 391
274<p> 392<p>
275Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri 393Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
276link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 394<uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
277</p> 395</p>
278 396
279</body> 397</body>
280</section> 398</section>
281<section id="parted"> 399<section id="parted">
282<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 400<title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
283<body> 401<body>
284 402
285<p> 403<p>
286<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 404<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
287Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and 405Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and
292<p> 410<p>
293To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>: 411To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
294</p> 412</p>
295 413
296<pre caption="Starting parted"> 414<pre caption="Starting parted">
297# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 415# <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
298</pre> 416</pre>
299 417
300<p> 418<p>
301If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 419If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
302disklabel for the drive. 420disklabel for the drive.
303</p> 421</p>
304 422
305<p> 423<p>
306You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 424You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
308<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted. 426<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted.
309</p> 427</p>
310 428
311<p> 429<p>
312If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 430If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
313named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough 431at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
314to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs 432kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
315or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 433ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
316Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run 434Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
317<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 435partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
318be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition 436<c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c>) which
319starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. 437creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
320</p> 438create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
321 439the mkpart command.
322<p> 440</p>
323You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 441
324program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
325must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
326reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
327<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
328<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
329partition.
330</p> 442<p>
331 443You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
444swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
445replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
332<p> 446</p>
447
448<p>
333It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as 449It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
334the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a 450bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
335smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the 451recommended. To create the swap partition, run
336same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap 452<c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
337partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 453the partition boundries.
338</p>
339
340<p> 454</p>
341Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 455
342installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
343are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
344of the partition.
345</p> 456<p>
346
347<p>
348When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>. 457When you are done in parted simply type <c>quit</c>.
349</p> 458</p>
350 459
351</body> 460</body>
352</section> 461</section>
353<section id="filesystems"> 462<section id="filesystems">
356<title>Introduction</title> 465<title>Introduction</title>
357<body> 466<body>
358 467
359<p> 468<p>
360Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 469Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
361If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 470If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
362as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 471continue with
363 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 472<uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
364Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 473Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
365</p> 474</p>
366 475
367</body> 476</body>
368</subsection>
369<subsection> 477</subsection>
370<title>Filesystems?</title>
371<body>
372 478
373<p> 479<subsection>
374Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found 480<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
375stable on the PPC architecture. 481</subsection>
482
483<subsection>
484<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
485<body>
486
376</p> 487<p>
377 488<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
378<p> 489</p>
379<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 490
380journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 491<pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
381be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 492# <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
382journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 493</pre>
383thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 494
384filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
385happens to be in an inconsistent state.
386</p> 495<p>
387 496To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
388<p> 497</p>
389<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 498
390journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 499<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
391full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 500# <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
392filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 501</pre>
393high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by 502
394adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
395excellent filesystem.
396</p> 503<p>
397 504Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
398<p>
399<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
400performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
401files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
402extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
403solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
404as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
405files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
406</p>
407
408<p>
409<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
410feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
411filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
412an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
413in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
414when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
415deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
416</p> 505</p>
417 506
418</body> 507</body>
419</subsection> 508</subsection>
420<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 509<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
431 <th>Filesystem</th> 520 <th>Filesystem</th>
432 <th>Creation Command</th> 521 <th>Creation Command</th>
433</tr> 522</tr>
434<tr> 523<tr>
435 <ti>ext2</ti> 524 <ti>ext2</ti>
436 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti> 525 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
437</tr> 526</tr>
438<tr> 527<tr>
439 <ti>ext3</ti> 528 <ti>ext3</ti>
440 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti> 529 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
441</tr> 530</tr>
442<tr> 531<tr>
443 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 532 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
444 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti> 533 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
445</tr> 534</tr>
446<tr> 535<tr>
447 <ti>xfs</ti> 536 <ti>xfs</ti>
448 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 537 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
449</tr> 538</tr>
450</table> 539</table>
451 540
452<p> 541<p>
453For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example) 542For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
454in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 543(<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example), you would use:
455</p> 544</p>
456 545
457<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 546<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
458# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i> 547# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
459</pre> 548</pre>
460 549
461<p> 550<p>
462Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 551Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
463volumes). 552volumes).
464</p> 553</p>
465 554
555<impo>
556If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
557block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
558explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
559</impo>
560
466<note> 561<note>
467On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3. 562On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
468NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even 563affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
469HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must 564even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
470be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure 565must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
471your bootloader. 566configure your bootloader.
472</note> 567</note>
473
474</body>
475</subsection>
476<subsection>
477<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
478<body>
479
480<p>
481<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
482</p>
483
484<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
485# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
486</pre>
487
488<p>
489To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
490</p>
491
492<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
493# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
494</pre>
495
496<p>
497Create and activate the swap now.
498</p>
499 568
500</body> 569</body>
501</subsection> 570</subsection>
502</section> 571</section>
503<section> 572<section>
504<title>Mounting</title> 573<title>Mounting</title>
505<body> 574<body>
506 575
507<p> 576<p>
508Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 577Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
509time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 578time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
510create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 579mount the root partition:
511example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
512</p> 580</p>
513 581
514<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 582<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
515# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
516# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i> 583# <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
517</pre> 584</pre>
518 585
519<note> 586<note>
520If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 587If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
521change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 588change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
522also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 589<c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
523</note> 590</note>
524
525<p>
526We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
527kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
528partitions.
529</p>
530 591
531<p> 592<p>
532Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 593Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
533Installation Files</uri>. 594Installation Files</uri>.
534</p> 595</p>

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