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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.34 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.48 2010/07/21 00:52:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.5</version> 11<version>10.0</version>
12<date>2006-02-27</date> 12<date>2010-07-20</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 16
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most common block device is
30the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If you are installing onto SCSI, FireWire, USB or SATA
32drives, then your first hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p>
34
35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
38about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
39simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
40randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
41</p>
42
43</body>
44</subsection> 17<subsection>
18<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19</subsection>
20
45<subsection> 21<subsection>
46<title>Partitions</title> 22<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 23<body>
48 24
49<p> 25<p>
62<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 38<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
63<body> 39<body>
64 40
65<p> 41<p>
66If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 42If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
67you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book: 43you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
44filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
45installing on.
46</p>
47
48</body>
49</subsection>
50<subsection>
51<title>Apple New World</title>
52<body>
53
68</p> 54<p>
55Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
56partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track of
57the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next partition
58should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a small (800k)
59HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its configuration
60file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a <path>/boot</path> partition as
61found on other architectures. After the boot partition, the usual Linux
62filesystems are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a
63temporary storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The
64root partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on. If you
65wish to dual boot, the OSX partition can go anywhere after the bootstrap
66partition to insure that yaboot starts first.
67</p>
68
69<note>
70There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
71<path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
72<path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
73<path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no need
74for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with <c>mac-fdisk</c>'s
75<c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt, just
76let them be.
77</note>
78
79<note>
80If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
81128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
82can safely remove these.
83</note>
69 84
70<table> 85<table>
71<tr> 86<tr>
72 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
73 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 87 <th>Partition</th>
75 <th>Partition RS/6000</th> 88 <th>Size</th>
76 <th>Filesystem</th> 89 <th>Filesystem</th>
90 <th>Description</th>
91</tr>
92<tr>
93 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
94 <ti>32k</ti>
95 <ti>None</ti>
96 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
97</tr>
98<tr>
99 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
100 <ti>800k</ti>
101 <ti>HFS</ti>
102 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
103</tr>
104<tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
106 <ti>512Mb</ti>
107 <ti>Swap</ti>
108 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
109</tr>
110<tr>
111 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
112 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
113 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
114 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
115</tr>
116</table>
117
118</body>
119</subsection>
120<subsection>
121<title>Apple Old World</title>
122<body>
123
124<p>
125Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
126partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
127of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
128BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
129disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
130Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
131Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
132using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
133other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
134are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
135storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
136partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
137</p>
138
139<note>
140If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
141The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
142</note>
143
144<table>
145<tr>
146 <th>Partition</th>
77 <th>Size</th> 147 <th>Size</th>
148 <th>Filesystem</th>
78 <th>Description</th> 149 <th>Description</th>
79</tr> 150</tr>
80<tr> 151<tr>
81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 152 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
85 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
86 <ti>32k</ti> 153 <ti>32k</ti>
154 <ti>None</ti>
87 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 155 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
88</tr>
89<tr> 156</tr>
157<tr>
90 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 158 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 159 <ti>32Mb</ti>
92 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 160 <ti>ext2</ti>
93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 161 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
94 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 162</tr>
163<tr>
164 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
165 <ti>512Mb</ti>
166 <ti>Swap</ti>
167 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
168</tr>
169<tr>
170 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
171 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
172 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
173 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
174</tr>
175</table>
176
177</body>
178</subsection>
179<subsection>
180<title>Pegasos</title>
181<body>
182
183<p>
184The Pegasos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
185The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
186along with an Open Firmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
187partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
188below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
189runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
190that Gentoo is installed on.
191</p>
192
193<table>
194<tr>
195 <th>Partition</th>
196 <th>Size</th>
197 <th>Filesystem</th>
198 <th>Description</th>
199</tr>
200<tr>
201 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
202 <ti>32Mb</ti>
203 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
204 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
205</tr>
206<tr>
207 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
208 <ti>512Mb</ti>
209 <ti>Swap</ti>
210 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
211</tr>
212<tr>
213 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
214 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
215 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
216 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
217</tr>
218</table>
219
220</body>
221</subsection>
222<subsection>
223<title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
224<body>
225
226<p>
227The IBM PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) requires a small PReP boot partition
228on the disk's first partition, followed by the swap and root partitions.
229</p>
230
231<table>
232<tr>
233 <th>Partition</th>
234 <th>Size</th>
235 <th>Filesystem</th>
236 <th>Description</th>
237</tr>
238<tr>
239 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
95 <ti>800k</ti> 240 <ti>800k</ti>
96 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 241 <ti>None</ti>
97</tr> 242 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
98<tr> 243</tr>
99 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
100 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
103 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
104 <ti>800k</ti>
105 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
106</tr> 244<tr>
107<tr>
108 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
109 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path> (If using quik)</ti>
110 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
111 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
112 <ti>ext2</ti>
113 <ti>32MB</ti>
114 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
115</tr>
116<tr>
117 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path>(<path>/dev/hda3</path> if using quik)</ti>
119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
120 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti> 245 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
121 <ti>(swap)</ti>
122 <ti>512M</ti> 246 <ti>512Mb</ti>
123 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti> 247 <ti>Swap</ti>
124</tr> 248 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
125<tr> 249</tr>
126 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 250<tr>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path> (<path>/dev/hda4</path> if using quik)</ti>
128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
129 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti> 251 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
130 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
131 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 252 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
132 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti> 253 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
254 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
133</tr> 255</tr>
134</table> 256</table>
135 257
136<note>
137There are some partitions named: <path>Apple_Driver43, Apple_Driver_ATA,
138Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
139planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
140need them. To delete them, either use parted or erase the whole disk by
141initializing the partition map.
142</note>
143
144<warn> 258<warn>
145<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately it is 259<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
146not possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, so switch off journaling in 260may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
147Mac OS X before resizing. Remeber that any resizing operation is dangerous, 261results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
148so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always have a backup of your data 262resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
149before resizing! 263have a backup of your data before resizing!
150</warn> 264</warn>
151 265
152<p> 266<p>
153If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many 267If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
154partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 268partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
155<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk 269<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
156</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to 270</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
166<p> 280<p>
167The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 281The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
168if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 282if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
169<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 283<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
170If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path> 284If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
171should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good 285should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
172choice of filesystem will then maximize your performance. Gameservers will have 286choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
173a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The 287have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
174reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will 288reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
175definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the 289you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
176majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 MB 290will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
177excluding the various sources that are stored in it. 291more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
178</p> 292</p>
179 293
180<p> 294<p>
181As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 295As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
182partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 296partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
218<p> 332<p>
219At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 333At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
220</p> 334</p>
221 335
222<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk"> 336<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
223# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i> 337# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
224</pre> 338</pre>
225 339
226<p> 340<p>
341If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
227First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 342partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
228Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 343<c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
229It will ask for the partition number to delete. The first partition on Apple 344partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
230machines (Apple_partition_map) can not be deleted. 345(Apple_partition_map) cannot be deleted. If you would like to start with a
231</p> 346clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
232 347will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
233<p> 348</p>
349
350<p>
234On NewWorld Macs, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. 351Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
235It will ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first 352ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
236free partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>. 353partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
237</p> 354</p>
238 355
239<note> 356<note>
240This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by 357This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
241Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never 358Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
245<p> 362<p>
246Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 363Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
247ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c> 364ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
248before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 365before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
249<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 366<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
250you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter 367you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
251<c>swap</c> (mandatory). 368is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
252</p> 369</p>
253 370
254<p> 371<p>
255To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select 372To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
256from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 373from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
257<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 374<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
258space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 375space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
259</p> 376</p>
260 377
261<p> 378<p>
262To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 379To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
263quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 380quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
264</p> 381</p>
265 382
266<note> 383<note>
267To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check 384To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
268whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions 385whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
269you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions 386created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
270by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map 387pressing <c>i</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c>. Note that this will recreate the
271and thus remove all your partitions. 388partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
272</note> 389</note>
273 390
274<p> 391<p>
275Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri 392Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
276link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 393<uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
277</p> 394</p>
278 395
279</body> 396</body>
280</section> 397</section>
281<section id="parted"> 398<section id="parted">
282<title>Using parted (Mostly Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 399<title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
283<body> 400<body>
284 401
285<p> 402<p>
286<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 403<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
287Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and 404Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac partitions and
288create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below 405create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
289describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only. 406describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
290</p> 407</p>
291 408
292<p> 409<p>
293To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>: 410To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
294</p> 411</p>
295 412
296<pre caption="Starting parted"> 413<pre caption="Starting parted">
297# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 414# <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
298</pre> 415</pre>
299 416
300<p> 417<p>
301If the drive isn't partitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 418If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
302disklabel for the drive. 419disklabel for the drive.
303</p> 420</p>
304 421
305<p> 422<p>
306You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 423You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
307table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press 424table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
308<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted. 425<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort <c>parted</c>.
309</p> 426</p>
310 427
311<p> 428<p>
312If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 429If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
313named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough 430at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
314to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs 431kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
315or xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 432ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
316Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run 433Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
317<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 434partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
318be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition 435<c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c>) which
319starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. 436creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
320</p> 437create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
321 438the <c>mkpart</c> command.
322<p> 439</p>
323You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 440
324program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
325must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
326reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
327<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
328<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
329partition.
330</p> 441<p>
331 442You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
443swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
444replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
332<p> 445</p>
446
447<p>
333It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as 448It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
334the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a 449bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
335smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the 450recommended. To create the swap partition, run
336same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap 451<c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
337partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 452the partition boundries.
338</p>
339
340<p> 453</p>
341Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 454
342installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
343are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
344of the partition.
345</p> 455<p>
346
347<p>
348When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>. 456When you are done in <c>parted</c> simply type <c>quit</c>.
349</p> 457</p>
350 458
351</body> 459</body>
352</section> 460</section>
353<section id="filesystems"> 461<section id="filesystems">
356<title>Introduction</title> 464<title>Introduction</title>
357<body> 465<body>
358 466
359<p> 467<p>
360Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 468Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
361If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 469If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
362as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 470continue with
363 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 471<uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
364Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 472Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
365</p> 473</p>
366 474
367</body> 475</body>
368</subsection>
369<subsection> 476</subsection>
370<title>Filesystems?</title>
371<body>
372 477
373<p> 478<subsection>
374Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS have been found 479<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
375stable on the PPC architecture. 480</subsection>
481
482<subsection>
483<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
484<body>
485
376</p> 486<p>
377 487<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
378<p> 488</p>
379<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 489
380journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 490<pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
381be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 491# <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
382journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 492</pre>
383thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 493
384filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
385happens to be in an inconsistent state.
386</p> 494<p>
387 495To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
388<p> 496</p>
389<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 497
390journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 498<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
391full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 499# <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
392filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 500</pre>
393high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by 501
394adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
395excellent filesystem.
396</p> 502<p>
397 503Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
398<p>
399<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
400performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
401files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
402extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
403solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
404as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
405files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
406</p>
407
408<p>
409<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
410feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
411filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
412an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
413in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
414when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
415deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
416</p> 504</p>
417 505
418</body> 506</body>
419</subsection> 507</subsection>
420<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 508<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
431 <th>Filesystem</th> 519 <th>Filesystem</th>
432 <th>Creation Command</th> 520 <th>Creation Command</th>
433</tr> 521</tr>
434<tr> 522<tr>
435 <ti>ext2</ti> 523 <ti>ext2</ti>
436 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti> 524 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
437</tr> 525</tr>
438<tr> 526<tr>
439 <ti>ext3</ti> 527 <ti>ext3</ti>
440 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti> 528 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
441</tr> 529</tr>
442<tr> 530<tr>
443 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 531 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
444 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti> 532 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
445</tr> 533</tr>
446<tr> 534<tr>
447 <ti>xfs</ti> 535 <ti>xfs</ti>
448 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 536 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
449</tr> 537</tr>
450</table> 538</table>
451 539
452<p> 540<p>
453For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example) 541For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
454in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 542(<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example), you would use:
455</p> 543</p>
456 544
457<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 545<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
458# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i> 546# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
459</pre> 547</pre>
460 548
461<p> 549<p>
462Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 550Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
463volumes). 551volumes).
464</p> 552</p>
465 553
554<impo>
555If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
556block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
557explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
558</impo>
559
466<note> 560<note>
467On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2 or ext3. 561On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
468NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or even 562affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
469HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel must 563even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
470be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you configure 564must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
471your bootloader. 565configure your bootloader.
472</note> 566</note>
473
474</body>
475</subsection>
476<subsection>
477<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
478<body>
479
480<p>
481<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
482</p>
483
484<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
485# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
486</pre>
487
488<p>
489To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
490</p>
491
492<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
493# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
494</pre>
495
496<p>
497Create and activate the swap now.
498</p>
499 567
500</body> 568</body>
501</subsection> 569</subsection>
502</section> 570</section>
503<section> 571<section>
504<title>Mounting</title> 572<title>Mounting</title>
505<body> 573<body>
506 574
507<p> 575<p>
508Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 576Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
509time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 577time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
510create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 578mount the root partition:
511example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
512</p> 579</p>
513 580
514<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 581<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
515# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
516# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i> 582# <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
517</pre> 583</pre>
518 584
519<note> 585<note>
520If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 586If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
521change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 587change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
522also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 588<c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
523</note> 589</note>
524
525<p>
526We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
527kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
528partitions.
529</p>
530 590
531<p> 591<p>
532Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 592Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
533Installation Files</uri>. 593Installation Files</uri>.
534</p> 594</p>

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