/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.48 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Jul 21 00:52:41 2010 UTC (4 years, 1 month ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.47: +33 -34 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Update the PPC handbook for the autobuilds. Major version bump for this release. Fixes bug 260403, bug 292726, and bug 234310.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.47 2008/05/02 08:04:23 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>10.0</version>
12 <date>2010-07-20</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16
17 <subsection>
18 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 </subsection>
20
21 <subsection>
22 <title>Partitions</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p>
26 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
29 these are called <e>partitions</e>.
30 </p>
31
32 </body>
33 </subsection>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
43 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
44 filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
45 installing on.
46 </p>
47
48 </body>
49 </subsection>
50 <subsection>
51 <title>Apple New World</title>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
56 partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track of
57 the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next partition
58 should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a small (800k)
59 HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its configuration
60 file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a <path>/boot</path> partition as
61 found on other architectures. After the boot partition, the usual Linux
62 filesystems are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a
63 temporary storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The
64 root partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on. If you
65 wish to dual boot, the OSX partition can go anywhere after the bootstrap
66 partition to insure that yaboot starts first.
67 </p>
68
69 <note>
70 There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
71 <path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
72 <path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
73 <path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no need
74 for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with <c>mac-fdisk</c>'s
75 <c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt, just
76 let them be.
77 </note>
78
79 <note>
80 If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
81 128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
82 can safely remove these.
83 </note>
84
85 <table>
86 <tr>
87 <th>Partition</th>
88 <th>Size</th>
89 <th>Filesystem</th>
90 <th>Description</th>
91 </tr>
92 <tr>
93 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
94 <ti>32k</ti>
95 <ti>None</ti>
96 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
97 </tr>
98 <tr>
99 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
100 <ti>800k</ti>
101 <ti>HFS</ti>
102 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
103 </tr>
104 <tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
106 <ti>512Mb</ti>
107 <ti>Swap</ti>
108 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
109 </tr>
110 <tr>
111 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
112 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
113 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
114 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
115 </tr>
116 </table>
117
118 </body>
119 </subsection>
120 <subsection>
121 <title>Apple Old World</title>
122 <body>
123
124 <p>
125 Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
126 partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
127 of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
128 BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
129 disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
130 Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
131 Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
132 using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
133 other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
134 are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
135 storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
136 partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
137 </p>
138
139 <note>
140 If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
141 The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
142 </note>
143
144 <table>
145 <tr>
146 <th>Partition</th>
147 <th>Size</th>
148 <th>Filesystem</th>
149 <th>Description</th>
150 </tr>
151 <tr>
152 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
153 <ti>32k</ti>
154 <ti>None</ti>
155 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
156 </tr>
157 <tr>
158 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
159 <ti>32Mb</ti>
160 <ti>ext2</ti>
161 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
162 </tr>
163 <tr>
164 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
165 <ti>512Mb</ti>
166 <ti>Swap</ti>
167 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
168 </tr>
169 <tr>
170 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
171 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
172 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
173 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
174 </tr>
175 </table>
176
177 </body>
178 </subsection>
179 <subsection>
180 <title>Pegasos</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 The Pegasos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
185 The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
186 along with an Open Firmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
187 partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
188 below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
189 runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
190 that Gentoo is installed on.
191 </p>
192
193 <table>
194 <tr>
195 <th>Partition</th>
196 <th>Size</th>
197 <th>Filesystem</th>
198 <th>Description</th>
199 </tr>
200 <tr>
201 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
202 <ti>32Mb</ti>
203 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
204 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
205 </tr>
206 <tr>
207 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
208 <ti>512Mb</ti>
209 <ti>Swap</ti>
210 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
211 </tr>
212 <tr>
213 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
214 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
215 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
216 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
217 </tr>
218 </table>
219
220 </body>
221 </subsection>
222 <subsection>
223 <title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
224 <body>
225
226 <p>
227 The IBM PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) requires a small PReP boot partition
228 on the disk's first partition, followed by the swap and root partitions.
229 </p>
230
231 <table>
232 <tr>
233 <th>Partition</th>
234 <th>Size</th>
235 <th>Filesystem</th>
236 <th>Description</th>
237 </tr>
238 <tr>
239 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
240 <ti>800k</ti>
241 <ti>None</ti>
242 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
243 </tr>
244 <tr>
245 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
246 <ti>512Mb</ti>
247 <ti>Swap</ti>
248 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
249 </tr>
250 <tr>
251 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
252 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
253 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
254 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
255 </tr>
256 </table>
257
258 <warn>
259 <c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
260 may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
261 results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
262 resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
263 have a backup of your data before resizing!
264 </warn>
265
266 <p>
267 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
268 partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
269 <uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
270 </uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
271 Partition your Disk</uri>.
272 </p>
273
274 </body>
275 </subsection>
276 <subsection>
277 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
282 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
283 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
284 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
285 should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
286 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
287 have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
288 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
289 you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
290 will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
291 more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
296 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
297 </p>
298
299 <ul>
300 <li>
301 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
302 </li>
303 <li>
304 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
305 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
306 </li>
307 <li>
308 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
309 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
310 it is with multiple partitions)
311 </li>
312 <li>
313 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
314 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
315 </li>
316 </ul>
317
318 <p>
319 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
320 properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
321 partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
322 SATA.
323 </p>
324
325 </body>
326 </subsection>
327 </section>
328 <section id="mac-fdisk">
329 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
330 <body>
331
332 <p>
333 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
337 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
338 </pre>
339
340 <p>
341 If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
342 partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
343 <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
344 partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
345 (Apple_partition_map) cannot be deleted. If you would like to start with a
346 clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
347 will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
348 </p>
349
350 <p>
351 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
352 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
353 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
354 </p>
355
356 <note>
357 This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
358 Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
359 mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
360 </note>
361
362 <p>
363 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
364 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
365 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
366 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
367 you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
368 is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
373 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
374 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
375 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
376 </p>
377
378 <p>
379 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
380 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
381 </p>
382
383 <note>
384 To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
385 whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
386 created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
387 pressing <c>i</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c>. Note that this will recreate the
388 partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
389 </note>
390
391 <p>
392 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
393 <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
394 </p>
395
396 </body>
397 </section>
398 <section id="parted">
399 <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
400 <body>
401
402 <p>
403 <c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
404 Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac partitions and
405 create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
406 describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
407 </p>
408
409 <p>
410 To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Starting parted">
414 # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
419 disklabel for the drive.
420 </p>
421
422 <p>
423 You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
424 table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
425 <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort <c>parted</c>.
426 </p>
427
428 <p>
429 If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
430 at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
431 kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
432 ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
433 Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
434 partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
435 <c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c>) which
436 creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
437 create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
438 the <c>mkpart</c> command.
439 </p>
440
441 <p>
442 You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
443 swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
444 replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
445 </p>
446
447 <p>
448 It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
449 bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
450 recommended. To create the swap partition, run
451 <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
452 the partition boundries.
453 </p>
454
455 <p>
456 When you are done in <c>parted</c> simply type <c>quit</c>.
457 </p>
458
459 </body>
460 </section>
461 <section id="filesystems">
462 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
463 <subsection>
464 <title>Introduction</title>
465 <body>
466
467 <p>
468 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
469 If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
470 continue with
471 <uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
472 Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
473 </p>
474
475 </body>
476 </subsection>
477
478 <subsection>
479 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
480 </subsection>
481
482 <subsection>
483 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
484 <body>
485
486 <p>
487 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
488 </p>
489
490 <pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
491 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
492 </pre>
493
494 <p>
495 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
496 </p>
497
498 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
499 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
504 </p>
505
506 </body>
507 </subsection>
508 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
509 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
510 <body>
511
512 <p>
513 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
514 each possible filesystem:
515 </p>
516
517 <table>
518 <tr>
519 <th>Filesystem</th>
520 <th>Creation Command</th>
521 </tr>
522 <tr>
523 <ti>ext2</ti>
524 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
525 </tr>
526 <tr>
527 <ti>ext3</ti>
528 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
529 </tr>
530 <tr>
531 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
532 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
533 </tr>
534 <tr>
535 <ti>xfs</ti>
536 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
537 </tr>
538 </table>
539
540 <p>
541 For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
542 (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example), you would use:
543 </p>
544
545 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
546 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
547 </pre>
548
549 <p>
550 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
551 volumes).
552 </p>
553
554 <impo>
555 If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
556 block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
557 explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
558 </impo>
559
560 <note>
561 On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
562 affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
563 even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
564 must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
565 configure your bootloader.
566 </note>
567
568 </body>
569 </subsection>
570 </section>
571 <section>
572 <title>Mounting</title>
573 <body>
574
575 <p>
576 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
577 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
578 mount the root partition:
579 </p>
580
581 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
582 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
583 </pre>
584
585 <note>
586 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
587 change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
588 <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
589 </note>
590
591 <p>
592 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
593 Installation Files</uri>.
594 </p>
595
596 </body>
597 </section>
598 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20