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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.48 2010/07/21 00:52:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13 This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>10.1</version>
17 <date>2010-07-20</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21
22 <subsection>
23 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24 </subsection>
25
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Partitions</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
34 these are called <e>partitions</e>.
35 </p>
36
37 </body>
38 </subsection>
39 </section>
40 <section>
41 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
42 <subsection>
43 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <p>
47 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
48 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
49 filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
50 installing on.
51 </p>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 <subsection>
56 <title>Apple New World</title>
57 <body>
58
59 <p>
60 Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
61 partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track of
62 the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next partition
63 should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a small (800k)
64 HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its configuration
65 file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a <path>/boot</path> partition as
66 found on other architectures. After the boot partition, the usual Linux
67 filesystems are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a
68 temporary storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The
69 root partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on. If you
70 wish to dual boot, the OSX partition can go anywhere after the bootstrap
71 partition to insure that yaboot starts first.
72 </p>
73
74 <note>
75 There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
76 <path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
77 <path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
78 <path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no need
79 for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with <c>mac-fdisk</c>'s
80 <c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt, just
81 let them be.
82 </note>
83
84 <note>
85 If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
86 128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
87 can safely remove these.
88 </note>
89
90 <table>
91 <tr>
92 <th>Partition</th>
93 <th>Size</th>
94 <th>Filesystem</th>
95 <th>Description</th>
96 </tr>
97 <tr>
98 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
99 <ti>32k</ti>
100 <ti>None</ti>
101 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
102 </tr>
103 <tr>
104 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
105 <ti>800k</ti>
106 <ti>HFS</ti>
107 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
108 </tr>
109 <tr>
110 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
111 <ti>512Mb</ti>
112 <ti>Swap</ti>
113 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
114 </tr>
115 <tr>
116 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
117 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
118 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
119 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
120 </tr>
121 </table>
122
123 </body>
124 </subsection>
125 <subsection>
126 <title>Apple Old World</title>
127 <body>
128
129 <p>
130 Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
131 partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
132 of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
133 BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
134 disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
135 Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
136 Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
137 using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
138 other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
139 are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
140 storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
141 partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
142 </p>
143
144 <note>
145 If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
146 The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
147 </note>
148
149 <table>
150 <tr>
151 <th>Partition</th>
152 <th>Size</th>
153 <th>Filesystem</th>
154 <th>Description</th>
155 </tr>
156 <tr>
157 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
158 <ti>32k</ti>
159 <ti>None</ti>
160 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
161 </tr>
162 <tr>
163 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
164 <ti>32Mb</ti>
165 <ti>ext2</ti>
166 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
167 </tr>
168 <tr>
169 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
170 <ti>512Mb</ti>
171 <ti>Swap</ti>
172 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
176 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
177 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
178 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
179 </tr>
180 </table>
181
182 </body>
183 </subsection>
184 <subsection>
185 <title>Pegasos</title>
186 <body>
187
188 <p>
189 The Pegasos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
190 The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
191 along with an Open Firmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
192 partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
193 below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
194 runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
195 that Gentoo is installed on.
196 </p>
197
198 <table>
199 <tr>
200 <th>Partition</th>
201 <th>Size</th>
202 <th>Filesystem</th>
203 <th>Description</th>
204 </tr>
205 <tr>
206 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
207 <ti>32Mb</ti>
208 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
209 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
210 </tr>
211 <tr>
212 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
213 <ti>512Mb</ti>
214 <ti>Swap</ti>
215 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
219 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
220 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
221 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
222 </tr>
223 </table>
224
225 </body>
226 </subsection>
227 <subsection>
228 <title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
229 <body>
230
231 <p>
232 The IBM PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) requires a small PReP boot partition
233 on the disk's first partition, followed by the swap and root partitions.
234 </p>
235
236 <table>
237 <tr>
238 <th>Partition</th>
239 <th>Size</th>
240 <th>Filesystem</th>
241 <th>Description</th>
242 </tr>
243 <tr>
244 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
245 <ti>800k</ti>
246 <ti>None</ti>
247 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
248 </tr>
249 <tr>
250 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
251 <ti>512Mb</ti>
252 <ti>Swap</ti>
253 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
254 </tr>
255 <tr>
256 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
257 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
258 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
259 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
260 </tr>
261 </table>
262
263 <warn>
264 <c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
265 may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
266 results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
267 resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
268 have a backup of your data before resizing!
269 </warn>
270
271 <p>
272 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
273 partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
274 <uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
275 </uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
276 Partition your Disk</uri>.
277 </p>
278
279 </body>
280 </subsection>
281 <subsection>
282 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
283 <body>
284
285 <p>
286 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
287 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
288 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
289 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
290 should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
291 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
292 have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
293 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
294 you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
295 will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
296 more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
297 </p>
298
299 <p>
300 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
301 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
302 </p>
303
304 <ul>
305 <li>
306 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
307 </li>
308 <li>
309 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
310 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
311 </li>
312 <li>
313 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
314 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
315 it is with multiple partitions)
316 </li>
317 <li>
318 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
319 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
320 </li>
321 </ul>
322
323 <p>
324 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
325 properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
326 partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
327 SATA.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </subsection>
332 </section>
333 <section id="mac-fdisk">
334 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
335 <body>
336
337 <p>
338 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
342 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
343 </pre>
344
345 <p>
346 If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
347 partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
348 <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
349 partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
350 (Apple_partition_map) cannot be deleted. If you would like to start with a
351 clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
352 will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
357 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
358 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
359 </p>
360
361 <note>
362 This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
363 Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
364 mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
365 </note>
366
367 <p>
368 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
369 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
370 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
371 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
372 you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
373 is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
374 </p>
375
376 <p>
377 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
378 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
379 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
380 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
385 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
386 </p>
387
388 <note>
389 To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
390 whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
391 created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
392 pressing <c>i</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c>. Note that this will recreate the
393 partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
394 </note>
395
396 <p>
397 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
398 <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
399 </p>
400
401 </body>
402 </section>
403 <section id="parted">
404 <title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
405 <body>
406
407 <p>
408 <c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
409 Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac partitions and
410 create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
411 describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
412 </p>
413
414 <p>
415 To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption="Starting parted">
419 # <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 <p>
423 If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
424 disklabel for the drive.
425 </p>
426
427 <p>
428 You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
429 table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
430 <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort <c>parted</c>.
431 </p>
432
433 <p>
434 If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
435 at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
436 kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
437 ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
438 Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
439 partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
440 <c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c>) which
441 creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
442 create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
443 the <c>mkpart</c> command.
444 </p>
445
446 <p>
447 You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
448 swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
449 replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
450 </p>
451
452 <p>
453 It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
454 bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
455 recommended. To create the swap partition, run
456 <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
457 the partition boundries.
458 </p>
459
460 <p>
461 When you are done in <c>parted</c> simply type <c>quit</c>.
462 </p>
463
464 </body>
465 </section>
466 <section id="filesystems">
467 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
468 <subsection>
469 <title>Introduction</title>
470 <body>
471
472 <p>
473 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
474 If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
475 continue with
476 <uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
477 Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
478 </p>
479
480 </body>
481 </subsection>
482
483 <subsection>
484 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
485 </subsection>
486
487 <subsection>
488 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
489 <body>
490
491 <p>
492 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
496 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
497 </pre>
498
499 <p>
500 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
501 </p>
502
503 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
504 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
505 </pre>
506
507 <p>
508 Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
509 </p>
510
511 </body>
512 </subsection>
513 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
514 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
515 <body>
516
517 <p>
518 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
519 each possible filesystem:
520 </p>
521
522 <table>
523 <tr>
524 <th>Filesystem</th>
525 <th>Creation Command</th>
526 </tr>
527 <tr>
528 <ti>ext2</ti>
529 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
530 </tr>
531 <tr>
532 <ti>ext3</ti>
533 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
534 </tr>
535 <tr>
536 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
537 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
538 </tr>
539 <tr>
540 <ti>xfs</ti>
541 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
542 </tr>
543 </table>
544
545 <p>
546 For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
547 (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example), you would use:
548 </p>
549
550 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
551 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
552 </pre>
553
554 <p>
555 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
556 volumes).
557 </p>
558
559 <impo>
560 If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
561 block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
562 explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
563 </impo>
564
565 <note>
566 On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
567 affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
568 even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
569 must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
570 configure your bootloader.
571 </note>
572
573 </body>
574 </subsection>
575 </section>
576 <section>
577 <title>Mounting</title>
578 <body>
579
580 <p>
581 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
582 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
583 mount the root partition:
584 </p>
585
586 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
587 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
588 </pre>
589
590 <note>
591 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
592 change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
593 <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
594 </note>
595
596 <p>
597 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
598 Installation Files</uri>.
599 </p>
600
601 </body>
602 </section>
603 </sections>

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