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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 josejx 1.25 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.24 2005/05/29 18:36:51 josejx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 josejx 1.25 <version>2.5</version>
12     <date>2005-05-29</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22     </p>
23    
24     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28     </pre>
29    
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43     Guide</uri>.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47 swift 1.19 For PPC you can choose between <c>vanilla-sources</c> and
48     <c>gentoo-sources</c> (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you
49     perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special
50     kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: <c>pegasos-sources</c>. So let's
51 neysx 1.8 continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
52 swift 1.1 </p>
53    
54     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 swift 1.19 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 swift 1.1 </pre>
57    
58 swift 1.19 <note>
59     The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from
60     2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced
61     several problems on different PowerPC machines.
62     </note>
63    
64 swift 1.1 <p>
65     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 swift 1.19 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel
67     source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8</c>:
68 swift 1.1 </p>
69    
70     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 swift 1.19 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8
73 swift 1.1 </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.19 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77     <c>linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78     right kernel:
79 swift 1.1 </p>
80    
81     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 swift 1.19 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux</i>
85 swift 1.1 </pre>
86    
87     <p>
88 swift 1.19 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 swift 1.1 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 swift 1.19 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
91     it is the best way to optimize your environment.
92 swift 1.1 </p>
93    
94     <p>
95 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98     genkernel</uri> instead.
99 swift 1.1 </p>
100    
101     </body>
102     </subsection>
103     </section>
104     <section id="manual">
105 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 swift 1.1 <subsection>
107     <title>Introduction</title>
108     <body>
109    
110     <p>
111 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 neysx 1.11 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114     </p>
115    
116     <p>
117     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
119     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
120 swift 1.19 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD uses
121     (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
122 swift 1.1 </p>
123    
124     <p>
125     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
126     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
127     </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
130     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
131     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137     properly without additional tweaks).
138     </p>
139    
140     </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144     <body>
145    
146     <p>
147     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
148     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
149     </p>
150    
151     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
152     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
153     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
154     </pre>
155    
156     <p>
157     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
158     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
159 swift 1.19 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
160     <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
161 swift 1.1 </p>
162    
163     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
164 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
165     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
166     [*] /proc file system support
167 sejo 1.15 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
168 dertobi123 1.6 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
169    
170 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
171     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
172     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
173     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
174     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
175     </pre>
176    
177     <p>
178     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
179     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
180     </p>
181    
182     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
183 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
184     Networking support ---&gt;
185     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
186     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
187     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
188 swift 1.1 </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
192     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
193     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
194     </p>
195    
196     <p>
197     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
198     ethernet card.
199     </p>
200    
201     <p>
202     Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
203 swift 1.19 kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is
204     needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
205 swift 1.1 </p>
206    
207     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
208     File Systems ---&gt;
209     [*] HFS Support
210     </pre>
211    
212     <p>
213 josejx 1.24 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
214     compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
215     that you do not use this feature.
216     </p>
217    
218     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
219     Platform options ---&gt;
220     [ ] Preemptible Kernel
221     </pre>
222    
223     <p>
224 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
225     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
226     </p>
227    
228     </body>
229     </subsection>
230     <subsection id="compiling">
231     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
232     <body>
233    
234     <p>
235     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
236 dertobi123 1.6 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
237 swift 1.1 </p>
238    
239     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
240 neysx 1.8 # <i>make all &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
241 swift 1.1 </pre>
242    
243     <p>
244 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
245 swift 1.19 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
246 swift 1.1 </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
249 swift 1.19 <comment>replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version</comment>
250     (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
251     (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
252 swift 1.1 </pre>
253    
254     <p>
255     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
256     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
257     </p>
258    
259     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
260 swift 1.19 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</i>
261 swift 1.1 </pre>
262    
263     <p>
264     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
265     Modules</uri>.
266     </p>
267    
268     </body>
269     </subsection>
270     </section>
271     <section id="kernel_modules">
272     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
273     <subsection>
274     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
275     <body>
276    
277     <p>
278     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
279 pylon 1.7 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
280 swift 1.1 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
281     </p>
282    
283     <p>
284     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
285     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
286     just compiled:
287     </p>
288    
289     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
290     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
291     </pre>
292    
293     <p>
294     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
295 pylon 1.7 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
296 swift 1.1 name in it.
297     </p>
298    
299 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
300     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
301 swift 1.1 </pre>
302    
303 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
304 swift 1.1 3c59x
305     </pre>
306    
307     <p>
308 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
309     your System</uri>.
310     </p>
311    
312     </body>
313     </subsection>
314     </section>
315     <section id="genkernel">
316     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
317     <body>
318    
319     <p>
320     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
321     script to configure your kernel for you.
322     </p>
323    
324     <p>
325     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
326     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
327     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
328     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
329     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
330     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
331     doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
332     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
333     </p>
334    
335     <p>
336     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
337     </p>
338    
339     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
340     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
341     </pre>
342    
343     <p>
344     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
345     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
346 sejo 1.15 </p>
347 swift 1.19
348     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
349 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
350 swift 1.19 </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
354     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
355     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
356     </p>
357    
358     <p>
359     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
360     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
361     <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e>
362     the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably
363     want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
364     </p>
365    
366     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
367     # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
368 sejo 1.15 </pre>
369 swift 1.19
370 sejo 1.17 <p>
371 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
372     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
373     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
374     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
375     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
376     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
377 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
378     boot arguments, these are required for a sucessful boot with genkernel.
379 sejo 1.17 </p>
380 swift 1.19
381     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
382     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
383 sejo 1.17 </pre>
384 swift 1.19
385 sejo 1.15 <p>
386 swift 1.19 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
387     Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
388     hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
389     everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
390     </p>
391    
392     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
393     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
394     # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398     If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you will need to install
399     and setup <c>hotplug</c> as well:
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
403     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
404     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
405     </pre>
406    
407     <p>
408     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
409 swift 1.1 </p>
410    
411     </body>
412     </section>
413 swift 1.19
414 swift 1.1 </sections>

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