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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.27 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.26 2005/06/02 17:18:54 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 swift 1.26 <version>2.6</version>
12     <date>2005-06-02</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22     </p>
23    
24     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28     </pre>
29    
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43     Guide</uri>.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47 swift 1.19 For PPC you can choose between <c>vanilla-sources</c> and
48     <c>gentoo-sources</c> (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you
49     perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special
50     kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: <c>pegasos-sources</c>. So let's
51 neysx 1.8 continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
52 swift 1.1 </p>
53    
54     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 swift 1.19 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 swift 1.1 </pre>
57    
58 swift 1.19 <note>
59     The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from
60     2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced
61     several problems on different PowerPC machines.
62     </note>
63    
64 swift 1.1 <p>
65     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 swift 1.19 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel
67     source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8</c>:
68 swift 1.1 </p>
69    
70     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 swift 1.19 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8
73 swift 1.1 </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.19 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77     <c>linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78     right kernel:
79 swift 1.1 </p>
80    
81     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 swift 1.19 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux</i>
85 swift 1.1 </pre>
86    
87     <p>
88 swift 1.19 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 swift 1.1 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 swift 1.19 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
91     it is the best way to optimize your environment.
92 swift 1.1 </p>
93    
94     <p>
95 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98     genkernel</uri> instead.
99 swift 1.1 </p>
100    
101     </body>
102     </subsection>
103     </section>
104     <section id="manual">
105 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 swift 1.1 <subsection>
107     <title>Introduction</title>
108     <body>
109    
110     <p>
111 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 neysx 1.11 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114     </p>
115    
116     <p>
117     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118 swift 1.26 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
119 swift 1.27 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
120 swift 1.26 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
121     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
122     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
123 swift 1.27 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
124 swift 1.26 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
125     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
126 swift 1.1 </p>
127    
128     <p>
129     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
130     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
131     </p>
132    
133     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
134     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
135     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
136     </pre>
137    
138     <p>
139     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
140     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
141     properly without additional tweaks).
142     </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </subsection>
146     <subsection>
147     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
148     <body>
149    
150     <p>
151     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
152     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
156     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
157     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
158     </pre>
159    
160     <p>
161     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
162     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
163 swift 1.19 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
164     <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
165 swift 1.1 </p>
166    
167     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
168 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
169     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
170     [*] /proc file system support
171 sejo 1.15 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
172 dertobi123 1.6 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
173    
174 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
175     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
176     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
177     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
178     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
179     </pre>
180    
181     <p>
182     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
183     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
184     </p>
185    
186     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
187 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
188     Networking support ---&gt;
189     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
190     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
191     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
192 swift 1.1 </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
196     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
197     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
198     </p>
199    
200     <p>
201     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
202     ethernet card.
203     </p>
204    
205     <p>
206     Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
207 swift 1.19 kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is
208     needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
209 swift 1.1 </p>
210    
211     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
212     File Systems ---&gt;
213     [*] HFS Support
214     </pre>
215    
216     <p>
217 josejx 1.24 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
218     compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
219     that you do not use this feature.
220     </p>
221    
222     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
223     Platform options ---&gt;
224     [ ] Preemptible Kernel
225     </pre>
226    
227     <p>
228 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
229     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
230     </p>
231    
232     </body>
233     </subsection>
234     <subsection id="compiling">
235     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
236     <body>
237    
238     <p>
239     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
240 dertobi123 1.6 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
241 swift 1.1 </p>
242    
243     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
244 neysx 1.8 # <i>make all &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
245 swift 1.1 </pre>
246    
247     <p>
248 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
249 swift 1.19 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
250 swift 1.1 </p>
251    
252     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
253 swift 1.19 <comment>replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version</comment>
254     (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
255     (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
256 swift 1.1 </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
260     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
261     </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
264 swift 1.19 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</i>
265 swift 1.1 </pre>
266    
267     <p>
268     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
269     Modules</uri>.
270     </p>
271    
272     </body>
273     </subsection>
274     </section>
275     <section id="kernel_modules">
276     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
277     <subsection>
278     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
279     <body>
280    
281     <p>
282     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
283 pylon 1.7 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
284 swift 1.1 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
285     </p>
286    
287     <p>
288     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
289     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
290     just compiled:
291     </p>
292    
293     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
294     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
295     </pre>
296    
297     <p>
298     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
299 pylon 1.7 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
300 swift 1.1 name in it.
301     </p>
302    
303 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
304     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
305 swift 1.1 </pre>
306    
307 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
308 swift 1.1 3c59x
309     </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
313     your System</uri>.
314     </p>
315    
316     </body>
317     </subsection>
318     </section>
319     <section id="genkernel">
320     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
321     <body>
322    
323     <p>
324     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
325     script to configure your kernel for you.
326     </p>
327    
328     <p>
329     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
330     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
331     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
332     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
333     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
334     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
335     doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
336     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
337     </p>
338    
339     <p>
340     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
344     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
349     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
350 sejo 1.15 </p>
351 swift 1.19
352     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
353 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
354 swift 1.19 </pre>
355    
356     <p>
357     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
358     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
359     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
360     </p>
361    
362     <p>
363     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
364     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
365     <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e>
366     the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably
367     want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
368     </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
371     # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
372 sejo 1.15 </pre>
373 swift 1.19
374 sejo 1.17 <p>
375 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
376     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
377     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
378     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
379     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
380     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
381 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
382     boot arguments, these are required for a sucessful boot with genkernel.
383 sejo 1.17 </p>
384 swift 1.19
385     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
386     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
387 sejo 1.17 </pre>
388 swift 1.19
389 sejo 1.15 <p>
390 swift 1.19 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
391     Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
392     hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
393     everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
394     </p>
395    
396     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
397     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
398     # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
399     </pre>
400    
401     <p>
402     If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you will need to install
403     and setup <c>hotplug</c> as well:
404     </p>
405    
406     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
407     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
408     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
409     </pre>
410    
411     <p>
412     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
413 swift 1.1 </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </section>
417 swift 1.19
418 swift 1.1 </sections>

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