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#49831 - Use relative links for kernel source; some ebuilds break otherwise

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.3 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.2 2004/04/28 07:52:30 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Timezone</title>
12     <body>
13    
14     <p>
15     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18     </p>
19    
20     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     </body>
27     </section>
28     <section>
29     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39     Guide</uri>.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43 swift 1.2 For PPC you can choose between <c>ppc-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources-benh</c>,
44     <c>ppc-sources-dev</c>, <c>ppc-sources-crypto</c> and
45     <c>ppc-development-sources</c>. This latter kernel is available when you
46     perform a networkless installation. So let's continue with
47 swift 1.1 <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
48     </p>
49    
50     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
51 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge ppc-development-sources</i>
52 swift 1.1 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
56     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
57     </p>
58    
59     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
60     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
61 swift 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.1
62 swift 1.1 </pre>
63    
64     <p>
65     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
66     change the symlink before you continue:
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
70 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
71     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
72     # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.1 linux</i>
73 swift 1.1 </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. All architectures
77     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
78     by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
79     the best way to optimize your environment.
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83 swift 1.2 Continue now with <uri link="#manual">Manual Configuration</uri>.
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     </body>
87     </subsection>
88     </section>
89     <section id="manual">
90 swift 1.2 <title>Manual Configuration</title>
91 swift 1.1 <subsection>
92     <title>Introduction</title>
93     <body>
94    
95     <p>
96     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
97     Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
98     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
103     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
104     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
105     can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
106     provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
107     </p>
108    
109     <p>
110     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
111     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
112     </p>
113    
114     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
115     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
116     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
121     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
122     properly without additional tweaks).
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126     </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
129     <body>
130    
131     <p>
132     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
133     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
134     </p>
135    
136     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
137     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
138     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
143     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
144     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
145     file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
146     </p>
147    
148     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
149     File systems ---&gt;
150     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
151     [*] /proc file system support
152     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
153     [*] Automatically mount at boot
154    
155     <comment>(Deselect the following unless you have a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
156     [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
157    
158     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
159     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
160     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
161     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
162     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
163     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
164     </pre>
165    
166     <note>
167     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find some of the mentioned options under <c>Pseudo
168     filesystems</c> which is a subpart of <c>File systems</c>.
169     </note>
170    
171     <p>
172     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
173     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
174     </p>
175    
176     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
177     Network device support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
179     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
180     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
181     </pre>
182    
183     <note>
184     Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Networking
185     support</c> which is a subpart of <c>Device Drivers</c>.
186     </note>
187    
188     <p>
189     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
190     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
191     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
192     </p>
193    
194     <p>
195     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
196     ethernet card.
197     </p>
198    
199     <p>
200     Disable ADB raw keycodes:
201     </p>
202    
203     <pre caption="Disabling ADB raw keycodes">
204     Macintosh Device Drivers ---&gt;
205     [ ] Support for ADB raw keycodes
206     </pre>
207    
208     <p>
209     Also choose the correct RTC support (<e>disable</e> the <c>Enhanced RTC</c>
210     option):
211     </p>
212    
213     <pre caption="Activating the correct RTC option">
214     Character devices ---&gt;
215     [ ] Enhanced RTC
216    
217     General setup ---&gt;
218     [*] Support for /dev/rtc
219     </pre>
220    
221     <p>
222     Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
223     kernels to the MacOS partition.
224     </p>
225    
226     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
227     File Systems ---&gt;
228     [*] HFS Support
229     </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232     When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
233     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
234     </p>
235    
236     </body>
237     </subsection>
238     <subsection id="compiling">
239     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
240     <body>
241    
242     <p>
243     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
244     the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
245 swift 1.2 modules_install</c> or on the Pegasos run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make zImage
246     modules modules_install</c>:
247 swift 1.1 </p>
248    
249     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
250 swift 1.2 (Apple/IBM) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
251     (Pegasos) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make zImage modules modules_install</i>
252 swift 1.1 </pre>
253    
254     <p>
255     When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
256     <path>/boot</path>.
257     </p>
258    
259     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
260 swift 1.2 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
261     (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
262     </pre>
263    
264     <p>
265     Also don't forget to copy over the system map:
266     </p>
267    
268     <pre caption="Copying the system map">
269 swift 1.1 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
270     </pre>
271    
272     <p>
273     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
274     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
275     </p>
276    
277     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
278     # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
279     </pre>
280    
281     <p>
282     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
283     Modules</uri>.
284     </p>
285    
286     </body>
287     </subsection>
288     </section>
289     <section id="kernel_modules">
290     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
291     <subsection>
292     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
293     <body>
294    
295     <p>
296     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
297     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
298     </p>
299    
300     <table>
301     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
302     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
303     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
304     <tr>
305     <th>Ebuild</th>
306     <th>Purpose</th>
307     <th>Command</th>
308     </tr>
309     <tr>
310     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
311     <ti>
312     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
313     other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
314     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
315     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
316     </ti>
317     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
318     </tr>
319     </table>
320    
321     <p>
322     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
323     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
324     --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
325     </p>
326    
327     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
328     # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
329     </pre>
330    
331     </body>
332     </subsection>
333     <subsection>
334     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
335     <body>
336    
337     <p>
338     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
339     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
340     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
341     </p>
342    
343     <p>
344     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
345     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
346     just compiled:
347     </p>
348    
349     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
350     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
351     </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
355     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
356     name in it.
357     </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
360     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
361     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
362     </pre>
363    
364     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
365     3c59x
366     </pre>
367    
368     <p>
369     Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
370     <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
371     </p>
372    
373     <pre caption="Running modules-update">
374     # <i>modules-update</i>
375     </pre>
376    
377     <p>
378     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
379     your System</uri>.
380     </p>
381    
382     </body>
383     </subsection>
384     </section>
385     </sections>

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