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Added framebuffer section to kernel configuration.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 josejx 1.33 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.32 2005/07/29 17:11:30 josejx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 josejx 1.33 <version>2.10</version>
12     <date>2005-08-06</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22     </p>
23    
24     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28     </pre>
29    
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43     Guide</uri>.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47 swift 1.19 For PPC you can choose between <c>vanilla-sources</c> and
48     <c>gentoo-sources</c> (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you
49     perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special
50     kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: <c>pegasos-sources</c>. So let's
51 neysx 1.8 continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
52 swift 1.1 </p>
53    
54     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 swift 1.19 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 swift 1.1 </pre>
57    
58 swift 1.19 <note>
59     The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from
60     2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced
61     several problems on different PowerPC machines.
62     </note>
63    
64 swift 1.1 <p>
65     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 swift 1.19 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel
67     source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8</c>:
68 swift 1.1 </p>
69    
70     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 swift 1.19 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8
73 swift 1.1 </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.19 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77     <c>linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78     right kernel:
79 swift 1.1 </p>
80    
81     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 swift 1.19 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux</i>
85 swift 1.1 </pre>
86    
87     <p>
88 swift 1.19 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 swift 1.1 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 swift 1.19 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
91     it is the best way to optimize your environment.
92 swift 1.1 </p>
93    
94     <p>
95 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98     genkernel</uri> instead.
99 swift 1.1 </p>
100    
101     </body>
102     </subsection>
103     </section>
104     <section id="manual">
105 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 swift 1.1 <subsection>
107     <title>Introduction</title>
108     <body>
109    
110     <p>
111 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 neysx 1.11 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 swift 1.1 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114     </p>
115    
116     <p>
117     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118 swift 1.26 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
119 swift 1.27 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
120 swift 1.26 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
121     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
122     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
123 swift 1.27 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
124 swift 1.26 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
125     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
126 swift 1.1 </p>
127    
128     <p>
129     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
130     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
131     </p>
132    
133     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
134     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
135     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
136     </pre>
137    
138     <p>
139     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
140     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
141     properly without additional tweaks).
142     </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </subsection>
146     <subsection>
147     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
148     <body>
149    
150     <p>
151     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
152     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
153     </p>
154    
155 fox2mike 1.28 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
156 swift 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
157     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
158 fox2mike 1.28 General setup --->
159     [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
160 swift 1.1 </pre>
161    
162     <p>
163     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
164     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
165 swift 1.19 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
166     <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
167 swift 1.1 </p>
168    
169     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
170 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
171     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
172     [*] /proc file system support
173 sejo 1.15 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
174 dertobi123 1.6 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175    
176 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
179     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
180     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
181     </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
185     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
186     </p>
187    
188     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
189 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
190     Networking support ---&gt;
191     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
192     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
193     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
194 swift 1.1 </pre>
195    
196     <p>
197     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
198     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
199     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
200     </p>
201    
202     <p>
203     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
204     ethernet card.
205     </p>
206    
207     <p>
208     Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
209 swift 1.19 kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is
210     needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
211 swift 1.1 </p>
212    
213     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
214     File Systems ---&gt;
215     [*] HFS Support
216     </pre>
217    
218     <p>
219 josejx 1.24 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
220     compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
221     that you do not use this feature.
222     </p>
223    
224     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
225     Platform options ---&gt;
226     [ ] Preemptible Kernel
227     </pre>
228    
229     <p>
230 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
231     boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
232     framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
233     framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
237     Device Drivers ---&gt;
238     Graphics support ---&gt;
239     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
240     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
241     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
242     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
243     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
244     Console display driver support ---&gt;
245     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
246     </pre>
247    
248     <note>
249     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
250     optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
251     to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
252     <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
253     </note>
254    
255     <p>
256 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
257     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
258     </p>
259    
260     </body>
261     </subsection>
262     <subsection id="compiling">
263     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
264     <body>
265    
266     <p>
267     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
268 dertobi123 1.6 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
269 swift 1.1 </p>
270    
271     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
272 neysx 1.8 # <i>make all &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
273 swift 1.1 </pre>
274    
275     <p>
276 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
277 swift 1.19 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
278 swift 1.1 </p>
279    
280     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
281 swift 1.19 <comment>replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version</comment>
282     (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
283     (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
284 swift 1.1 </pre>
285    
286     <p>
287     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
288     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
289     </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
292 swift 1.19 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</i>
293 swift 1.1 </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
297     Modules</uri>.
298     </p>
299    
300     </body>
301     </subsection>
302     </section>
303     <section id="kernel_modules">
304     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
305     <subsection>
306     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
307     <body>
308    
309     <p>
310     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
311 pylon 1.7 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
312 swift 1.1 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
313     </p>
314    
315     <p>
316     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
317     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
318     just compiled:
319     </p>
320    
321     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
322     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
323     </pre>
324    
325     <p>
326     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
327 pylon 1.7 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
328 swift 1.1 name in it.
329     </p>
330    
331 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
332     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
333 swift 1.1 </pre>
334    
335 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
336 swift 1.1 3c59x
337     </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
341     your System</uri>.
342     </p>
343    
344     </body>
345     </subsection>
346     </section>
347     <section id="genkernel">
348     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
349     <body>
350    
351     <p>
352     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
353     script to configure your kernel for you.
354     </p>
355    
356     <p>
357     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
358     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
359     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
360     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
361     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
362     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
363     doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
364     those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
369     </p>
370    
371     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
372     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
373     </pre>
374    
375     <p>
376     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
377     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
378 sejo 1.15 </p>
379 swift 1.19
380     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
381 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
382 swift 1.19 </pre>
383    
384     <p>
385     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
386     Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
387     hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
388     </p>
389    
390     <p>
391     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
392     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
393     <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e>
394     the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably
395     want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
396     </p>
397    
398     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
399     # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
400 sejo 1.15 </pre>
401 swift 1.19
402 sejo 1.17 <p>
403 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
404     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
405     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
406     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
407     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
408     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
409 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
410     boot arguments, these are required for a sucessful boot with genkernel.
411 sejo 1.17 </p>
412 swift 1.19
413     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
414     # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
415 sejo 1.17 </pre>
416 swift 1.19
417 sejo 1.15 <p>
418 swift 1.19 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
419     Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
420     hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
421     everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
425     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
426     # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     <p>
430     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
431 swift 1.1 </p>
432    
433     </body>
434     </section>
435 swift 1.19
436 swift 1.1 </sections>

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