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#56065: make kernel options easier to find in 2.4 & 2.6 kernels

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.3 2004/05/09 11:33:37 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Timezone</title>
12     <body>
13    
14     <p>
15     You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18     </p>
19    
20     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23     # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24     </pre>
25    
26     </body>
27     </section>
28     <section>
29     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39     Guide</uri>.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43 swift 1.2 For PPC you can choose between <c>ppc-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources-benh</c>,
44     <c>ppc-sources-dev</c>, <c>ppc-sources-crypto</c> and
45     <c>ppc-development-sources</c>. This latter kernel is available when you
46     perform a networkless installation. So let's continue with
47 swift 1.1 <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
48     </p>
49    
50     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
51 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge ppc-development-sources</i>
52 swift 1.1 </pre>
53    
54     <p>
55     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
56     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
57     </p>
58    
59     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
60     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
61 swift 1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.1
62 swift 1.1 </pre>
63    
64     <p>
65     If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
66     change the symlink before you continue:
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
70 swift 1.3 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
71     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
72     # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.1 linux</i>
73 swift 1.1 </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. All architectures
77     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
78     by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
79     the best way to optimize your environment.
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83 swift 1.2 Continue now with <uri link="#manual">Manual Configuration</uri>.
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     </body>
87     </subsection>
88     </section>
89     <section id="manual">
90 swift 1.2 <title>Manual Configuration</title>
91 swift 1.1 <subsection>
92     <title>Introduction</title>
93     <body>
94    
95     <p>
96     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
97     Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
98     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
103     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
104     contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
105     can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
106     provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
107     </p>
108    
109     <p>
110     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
111     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
112     </p>
113    
114     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
115     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
116     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
121     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
122     properly without additional tweaks).
123     </p>
124    
125     </body>
126     </subsection>
127     <subsection>
128     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
129     <body>
130    
131     <p>
132     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
133     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
134     </p>
135    
136     <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
137     Code maturity level options ---&gt;
138     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
143     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
144     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
145     file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
146     </p>
147    
148     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
149 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
150 swift 1.1 File systems ---&gt;
151     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
152     [*] /proc file system support
153     [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
154     [*] Automatically mount at boot
155 neysx 1.4 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
156 swift 1.1
157 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
158     File systems ---&gt;
159     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
160     [*] /proc file system support
161     [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
162     [*] Automatically mount at boot
163     [*] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
164     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
165 swift 1.1
166     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
167     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
168     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
169     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
170     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
171     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
172     </pre>
173    
174     <p>
175     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
176     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
177     </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
180 neysx 1.4 <comment>(With a 2.4.x kernel)</comment>
181 swift 1.1 Network device support ---&gt;
182     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
183     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
184     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
185 neysx 1.4
186     <comment>(With a 2.6.x kernel)</comment>
187     Device Drivers ---&gt;
188     Networking support ---&gt;
189     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
190     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
191     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
192 swift 1.1 </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
196     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
197     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
198     </p>
199    
200     <p>
201     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
202     ethernet card.
203     </p>
204    
205     <p>
206     Disable ADB raw keycodes:
207     </p>
208    
209     <pre caption="Disabling ADB raw keycodes">
210     Macintosh Device Drivers ---&gt;
211     [ ] Support for ADB raw keycodes
212     </pre>
213    
214     <p>
215     Also choose the correct RTC support (<e>disable</e> the <c>Enhanced RTC</c>
216     option):
217     </p>
218    
219     <pre caption="Activating the correct RTC option">
220     Character devices ---&gt;
221     [ ] Enhanced RTC
222    
223     General setup ---&gt;
224     [*] Support for /dev/rtc
225     </pre>
226    
227     <p>
228     Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
229     kernels to the MacOS partition.
230     </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
233     File Systems ---&gt;
234     [*] HFS Support
235     </pre>
236    
237     <p>
238     When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
239     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
240     </p>
241    
242     </body>
243     </subsection>
244     <subsection id="compiling">
245     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
246     <body>
247    
248     <p>
249     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
250     the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
251 swift 1.2 modules_install</c> or on the Pegasos run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make zImage
252     modules modules_install</c>:
253 swift 1.1 </p>
254    
255     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
256 swift 1.2 (Apple/IBM) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
257     (Pegasos) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make zImage modules modules_install</i>
258 swift 1.1 </pre>
259    
260     <p>
261     When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
262     <path>/boot</path>.
263     </p>
264    
265     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
266 swift 1.2 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
267     (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
268     </pre>
269    
270     <p>
271     Also don't forget to copy over the system map:
272     </p>
273    
274     <pre caption="Copying the system map">
275 swift 1.1 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
276     </pre>
277    
278     <p>
279     It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
280     <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
281     </p>
282    
283     <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
284     # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
285     </pre>
286    
287     <p>
288     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
289     Modules</uri>.
290     </p>
291    
292     </body>
293     </subsection>
294     </section>
295     <section id="kernel_modules">
296     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
297     <subsection>
298     <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
299     <body>
300    
301     <p>
302     If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
303     on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
304     </p>
305    
306     <table>
307     <tcolumn width="1in"/>
308     <tcolumn width="4in"/>
309     <tcolumn width="2in"/>
310     <tr>
311     <th>Ebuild</th>
312     <th>Purpose</th>
313     <th>Command</th>
314     </tr>
315     <tr>
316     <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
317     <ti>
318     Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
319     other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
320     in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
321     need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
322     </ti>
323     <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
324     </tr>
325     </table>
326    
327     <p>
328     Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
329     what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
330     --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
331     </p>
332    
333     <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
334     # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
335     </pre>
336    
337     </body>
338     </subsection>
339     <subsection>
340     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
341     <body>
342    
343     <p>
344     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
345     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
346     You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
347     </p>
348    
349     <p>
350     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
351     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
352     just compiled:
353     </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
356     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
357     </pre>
358    
359     <p>
360     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
361     <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
362     name in it.
363     </p>
364    
365     <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
366     <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
367     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
368     </pre>
369    
370     <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
371     3c59x
372     </pre>
373    
374     <p>
375     Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
376     <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
377     </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Running modules-update">
380     # <i>modules-update</i>
381     </pre>
382    
383     <p>
384     Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
385     your System</uri>.
386     </p>
387    
388     </body>
389     </subsection>
390     </section>
391     </sections>

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