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Fixed defconfig for 2.6.16 and newer kernels.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 josejx 1.40 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 josejx 1.40 <version>2.17</version>
12     <date>2006-04-30</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.37 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 swift 1.1 </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 neysx 1.37 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 swift 1.1 </pre>
31    
32     </body>
33     </section>
34     <section>
35     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36     <subsection>
37     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41 swift 1.34 The base that all distributions are built upon is the Linux kernel. It is the
42     layer between the your programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 swift 1.1 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45     Guide</uri>.
46     </p>
47    
48     <p>
49 neysx 1.38 We suggest using either <c>vanilla-sources</c> or <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC,
50     which are both 2.6 kernels. The latter is available when you perform a
51     networkless installation. So let's continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel
52     sources. The <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or
53     other dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a
54     new install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
55     symlink.
56 swift 1.1 </p>
57    
58 swift 1.34 <pre caption="Installing the kernel source">
59 neysx 1.38 # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge gentoo-sources</i>
60 swift 1.1 </pre>
61    
62     <p>
63 swift 1.34 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
64 neysx 1.38 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
65 fox2mike 1.39 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.15</c>. Your version
66 neysx 1.38 may be different, so keep this in mind.
67 swift 1.1 </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
70     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
71 fox2mike 1.39 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.15-gentoo
72 swift 1.1 </pre>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.34 It is now time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
76     <c>genkernel</c> to build a generic kernel similar to the one used by the
77     Installation CD, or you can perform a manual configuration to best suit your
78     system.
79 swift 1.1 </p>
80    
81     <p>
82 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
83     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
84     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
85     genkernel</uri> instead.
86 swift 1.1 </p>
87    
88     </body>
89     </subsection>
90     </section>
91     <section id="manual">
92 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
93 swift 1.1 <subsection>
94     <title>Introduction</title>
95     <body>
96    
97     <p>
98 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
99 swift 1.34 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true, after configuring a
100     couple of kernels you won't even remember it being that difficult ;)
101 swift 1.1 </p>
102    
103     <p>
104 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
105     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
106     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
107 swift 1.26 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
108     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
109     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
110 swift 1.27 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
111 swift 1.26 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
112 swift 1.34 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). Another place
113     to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the kernel
114     message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type <c>dmesg</c>
115     to see the kernel messages.
116 swift 1.1 </p>
117    
118     <p>
119 neysx 1.37 Now go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel. It
120     is recommended that you add the default settings to your configuration by first
121 josejx 1.40 running <c>make defconfig</c> (for 2.6.15 and earlier kernels) or
122     <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c> (for 2.6.16 and later kernels). After the default
123     configuration has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> which will fire
124     up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
125 swift 1.1 </p>
126    
127     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
128     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
129 josejx 1.40 <comment>Substitute defconfig for pmac32_defconfig below if using a 2.6.15 or earlier kernel</comment>
130     # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
131 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137     properly without additional tweaks).
138     </p>
139    
140     </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144     <body>
145    
146     <p>
147     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
148     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
149     </p>
150    
151 fox2mike 1.28 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
152 swift 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
153     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
154 fox2mike 1.28 General setup --->
155     [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
156 swift 1.1 </pre>
157    
158     <p>
159     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
160     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
161 swift 1.19 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
162 neysx 1.38 <c>Virtual memory</c>.
163 swift 1.1 </p>
164    
165     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
166 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
167     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
168     [*] /proc file system support
169     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
170    
171 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
172 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
173     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
174 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
175     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
176     </pre>
177    
178     <p>
179     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
180     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
184 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
185     Networking support ---&gt;
186     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
187     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
188     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
189 swift 1.1 </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
193     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
194     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
195     </p>
196    
197     <p>
198     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
199     ethernet card.
200     </p>
201    
202     <p>
203 swift 1.34 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
204     users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
205     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
206 swift 1.1 </p>
207    
208     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
209     File Systems ---&gt;
210     [*] HFS Support
211     </pre>
212    
213     <p>
214 josejx 1.24 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
215     compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
216     that you do not use this feature.
217     </p>
218    
219     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
220     Platform options ---&gt;
221     [ ] Preemptible Kernel
222     </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225 swift 1.34 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you
226     do not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and
227     their dependencies in an initrd.
228     </p>
229    
230     <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
231     Device Drivers ---&gt;
232     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
233     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
234     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
235     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
236     </pre>
237    
238     <p>
239     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
240     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
241     dependencies in an initrd.
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
245     Device Drivers ---&gt;
246     USB support ---&gt;
247     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
248     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
249     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
250     </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
254     boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
255     framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
256     framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
257     </p>
258    
259     <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
260     Device Drivers ---&gt;
261     Graphics support ---&gt;
262     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
263     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
264     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
265     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
266     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
267     Console display driver support ---&gt;
268     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
269     </pre>
270    
271     <note>
272     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
273     optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
274     to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
275     <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
276     </note>
277    
278     <p>
279 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
280     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
281     </p>
282    
283     </body>
284     </subsection>
285     <subsection id="compiling">
286     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
287     <body>
288    
289     <p>
290     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
291 dertobi123 1.6 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
292 swift 1.1 </p>
293    
294     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
295 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
296 swift 1.1 </pre>
297    
298     <p>
299 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
300 fox2mike 1.39 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on Pegasos computers).
301     If you are using BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
302     </p>
303    
304     <p>
305     Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
306     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
307     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you
308     are using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed
309     kernel called zImage.chrp which can be found in
310     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/ppc/boot/images</path>.
311 swift 1.1 </p>
312    
313     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
314 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
315 neysx 1.38 <comment>replace &lt;kernel-version&gt; with your kernel version</comment>
316 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
317     # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
318     <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
319     # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
320 swift 1.1 </pre>
321    
322     <p>
323     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
324     Modules</uri>.
325     </p>
326    
327     </body>
328     </subsection>
329     </section>
330     <section id="kernel_modules">
331     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
332     <subsection>
333     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
334     <body>
335    
336     <p>
337     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
338 pylon 1.7 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
339 swift 1.34 You can add extra options to the modules too if needed.
340 swift 1.1 </p>
341    
342     <p>
343     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
344     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
345     just compiled:
346     </p>
347    
348     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
349     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
350     </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
354 pylon 1.7 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
355 swift 1.1 name in it.
356     </p>
357    
358 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
359     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
360 swift 1.1 </pre>
361    
362 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
363 swift 1.1 3c59x
364     </pre>
365    
366     <p>
367 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
368     your System</uri>.
369     </p>
370    
371     </body>
372     </subsection>
373     </section>
374     <section id="genkernel">
375     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
380     script to configure your kernel for you.
381     </p>
382    
383     <p>
384     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
385     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
386     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
387     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
388     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
389 swift 1.34 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does.
390     Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an
391     ideal solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
392     kernels.
393 swift 1.19 </p>
394    
395     <p>
396     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
397     </p>
398    
399     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
400     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
401     </pre>
402    
403     <p>
404     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
405     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
406 sejo 1.15 </p>
407 swift 1.19
408     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
409 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
410 swift 1.19 </pre>
411    
412     <p>
413 swift 1.34 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
414     initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
415     <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
416     <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
417     </p>
418    
419     <p>
420     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
421     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
422     of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
423     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
424     quite a while to finish!
425 swift 1.19 </p>
426    
427     <p>
428     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
429     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
430 swift 1.34 <c>genkernel --menuconfig --genzimage all</c> and add support for your
431     filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
432     LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as
433     well.
434 swift 1.19 </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
437 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
438     </pre>
439    
440     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
441     # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
442 sejo 1.15 </pre>
443 swift 1.19
444 sejo 1.17 <p>
445 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
446     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
447     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
448     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
449     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
450     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
451 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
452 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
453 sejo 1.17 </p>
454 swift 1.19
455     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
456 swift 1.35 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
457 sejo 1.17 </pre>
458 swift 1.19
459 sejo 1.15 <p>
460 swift 1.19 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
461     Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
462     hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
463     everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
464     </p>
465    
466     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
467     # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
468     # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
469     </pre>
470    
471     <p>
472     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
473 swift 1.1 </p>
474    
475     </body>
476     </section>
477 swift 1.19
478 swift 1.1 </sections>

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