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Revision 1.46 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Feb 26 08:54:53 2007 UTC (7 years, 4 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.45: +5 -11 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
removed USE=symlink by request of dsd as part of the USE flag removal from all kernel sources, bug 167703. also further vanilla-sources removals as it's unsupported.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.46 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.45 2006/12/06 19:59:09 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 nightmorph 1.46 <version>7.4</version>
12     <date>2007-02-26</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.37 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23     indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 swift 1.1 </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 neysx 1.37 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 swift 1.1 </pre>
31    
32     </body>
33     </section>
34     <section>
35     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36     <subsection>
37     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41 nightmorph 1.42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 swift 1.1 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45     Guide</uri>.
46     </p>
47    
48     <p>
49 nightmorph 1.46 We suggest using <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC, which is a 2.6 kernel.
50 swift 1.1 </p>
51    
52 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
53 nightmorph 1.46 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
54 swift 1.1 </pre>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.34 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
58 neysx 1.38 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
59 fox2mike 1.39 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.15</c>. Your version
60 neysx 1.38 may be different, so keep this in mind.
61 swift 1.1 </p>
62    
63     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
64     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
65 nightmorph 1.42 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.15
66 swift 1.1 </pre>
67    
68     <p>
69 nightmorph 1.42 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
70     can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
71     by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
72     it is the best way to optimize your environment.
73 swift 1.1 </p>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
77     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
78     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
79     genkernel</uri> instead.
80 swift 1.1 </p>
81    
82     </body>
83     </subsection>
84     </section>
85     <section id="manual">
86 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
87 swift 1.1 <subsection>
88     <title>Introduction</title>
89     <body>
90    
91     <p>
92 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
93 nightmorph 1.42 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
94     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
95 swift 1.1 </p>
96    
97     <p>
98 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
99     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
100     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
101 swift 1.26 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
102     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
103     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
104 swift 1.27 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
105 swift 1.26 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
106 swift 1.34 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). Another place
107     to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the kernel
108     message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type <c>dmesg</c>
109     to see the kernel messages.
110 swift 1.1 </p>
111    
112     <p>
113 nightmorph 1.42 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
114     It is recommended that you add the default settings to your configuration by
115 josejx 1.43 first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration has
116     been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> which will fire up an ncurses-based
117 nightmorph 1.42 configuration menu.
118 swift 1.1 </p>
119    
120     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
121     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
122 josejx 1.43 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
123 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
124     </pre>
125    
126     <p>
127     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
128     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
129     properly without additional tweaks).
130     </p>
131    
132     </body>
133     </subsection>
134     <subsection>
135     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
136     <body>
137    
138     <p>
139     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
140     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
141     </p>
142    
143 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
144 swift 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
145     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
146     </pre>
147    
148     <p>
149     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
150     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
151 nightmorph 1.42 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
152     <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
153     partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
154     an Apple computer.
155 swift 1.1 </p>
156    
157     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
158 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
159     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
160     [*] /proc file system support
161     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
162 nightmorph 1.42 Partition Types ---&gt;
163     [*] Amiga partition table support
164     [*] Macintosh partition map support
165 dertobi123 1.6
166 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
167 nightmorph 1.42 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
168     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
169 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
170 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
175     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
179 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
180     Networking support ---&gt;
181     &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
182     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
183     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
184 swift 1.1 </pre>
185    
186     <p>
187     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
188     does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
189     <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
190     </p>
191    
192     <p>
193     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
194     ethernet card.
195     </p>
196    
197     <p>
198 swift 1.34 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
199     users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
200     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
201 swift 1.1 </p>
202    
203     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
204     File Systems ---&gt;
205     [*] HFS Support
206     </pre>
207    
208     <p>
209 josejx 1.24 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
210     compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
211     that you do not use this feature.
212     </p>
213    
214     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
215 nightmorph 1.42 Kernel options ---&gt;
216     Preemption Model (No Forced Preemption (Server))
217 josejx 1.24 </pre>
218    
219     <p>
220 nightmorph 1.42 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
221     not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
222     dependencies in an initrd.
223 swift 1.34 </p>
224    
225     <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
226     Device Drivers ---&gt;
227     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
228     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
229     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
230     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
231     </pre>
232    
233     <p>
234     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
235     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
236     dependencies in an initrd.
237     </p>
238    
239     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
240     Device Drivers ---&gt;
241     USB support ---&gt;
242     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
243     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
244     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
245     </pre>
246    
247     <p>
248 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
249     boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
250     framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
251     framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
252     </p>
253    
254     <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
255     Device Drivers ---&gt;
256     Graphics support ---&gt;
257     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
258     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
259     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
260     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
261     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
262     Console display driver support ---&gt;
263     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
264     </pre>
265    
266     <note>
267     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
268     optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
269     to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
270     <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
271     </note>
272    
273     <p>
274 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
275     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
276     </p>
277    
278     </body>
279     </subsection>
280     <subsection id="compiling">
281     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
282     <body>
283    
284     <p>
285     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
286 dertobi123 1.6 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
287 swift 1.1 </p>
288    
289     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
290 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
291 swift 1.1 </pre>
292    
293     <p>
294 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
295 fox2mike 1.39 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on Pegasos computers).
296     If you are using BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
297     </p>
298    
299     <p>
300     Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
301     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
302     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you
303     are using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed
304     kernel called zImage.chrp which can be found in
305     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/ppc/boot/images</path>.
306 swift 1.1 </p>
307    
308     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
309 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
310 neysx 1.38 <comment>replace &lt;kernel-version&gt; with your kernel version</comment>
311 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
312     # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
313     <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
314     # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
315 swift 1.1 </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
319     Modules</uri>.
320     </p>
321    
322     </body>
323     </subsection>
324     </section>
325     <section id="kernel_modules">
326     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
327     <subsection>
328     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
333 pylon 1.7 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
334 nightmorph 1.42 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
335 swift 1.1 </p>
336    
337     <p>
338     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
339     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
340     just compiled:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
344     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348     For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
349 pylon 1.7 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
350 swift 1.1 name in it.
351     </p>
352    
353 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
354     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
355 swift 1.1 </pre>
356    
357 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
358 swift 1.1 3c59x
359     </pre>
360    
361     <p>
362 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
363     your System</uri>.
364     </p>
365    
366     </body>
367     </subsection>
368     </section>
369     <section id="genkernel">
370     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <p>
374     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
375     script to configure your kernel for you.
376     </p>
377    
378     <p>
379     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
380     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
381     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
382     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
383     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
384 josejx 1.44 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
385     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
386     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
387 swift 1.19 </p>
388    
389     <p>
390     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
391     </p>
392    
393     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
394     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
399     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
400 sejo 1.15 </p>
401 swift 1.19
402     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
403 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
404 swift 1.19 </pre>
405    
406     <p>
407 swift 1.34 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
408     initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
409     <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
410     <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
411     </p>
412    
413 josejx 1.44 <p>
414     Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
415     the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
416     details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
417     that's different), remove the line referencing /boot from
418     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
422     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
423     <comment>Remove this line</comment>
424     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
425     </pre>
426 nightmorph 1.42
427 swift 1.34 <p>
428     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
429     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
430     of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
431     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
432     quite a while to finish!
433 swift 1.19 </p>
434    
435     <p>
436     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
437     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
438 nightmorph 1.42 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
439 swift 1.34 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
440     LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as
441     well.
442 swift 1.19 </p>
443    
444     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
445 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
446     </pre>
447    
448     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
449     # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
450 sejo 1.15 </pre>
451 swift 1.19
452 sejo 1.17 <p>
453 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
454     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
455     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
456     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
457     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
458     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
459 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
460 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
461 sejo 1.17 </p>
462 swift 1.19
463     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
464 swift 1.35 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
465 sejo 1.17 </pre>
466 swift 1.19
467 sejo 1.15 <p>
468 nightmorph 1.42 If you want your system to be more like the Installation CD you should,
469     when your Gentoo installation is over, emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the
470     initrd autodetects hardware that is needed to boot your system,
471     <c>coldplug</c> autodetects everything else. <c>coldplug</c> is available as one
472     of the packages on the Package CD.
473 swift 1.19 </p>
474    
475     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
476 nightmorph 1.42 <comment>(Do this after the installation, during the GRP installation instructions)</comment>
477     # <i>emerge -k coldplug</i>
478 swift 1.19 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
479     </pre>
480    
481 nightmorph 1.45 <note>
482     You no longer need to emerge <c>coldplug</c> if you're using <c>udev</c> version
483     103 and higher. If you receive a message that <c>udev</c> blocks <c>coldplug</c>
484     from being installed, then you don't need to install <c>coldplug</c>.
485     </note>
486    
487 swift 1.19 <p>
488 nightmorph 1.42 If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you will need to install
489     and setup <c>hotplug</c> as well:
490     </p>
491    
492     <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
493     # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
494     # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498 swift 1.19 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
499 swift 1.1 </p>
500    
501     </body>
502     </section>
503 swift 1.19
504 swift 1.1 </sections>

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