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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 rane 1.50 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.49 2007/05/15 13:07:41 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 neysx 1.49 <version>8.1</version>
12     <date>2007-05-15</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.49 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 neysx 1.49 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24     GMT+8.
25 swift 1.1 </p>
26    
27     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 neysx 1.49 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 swift 1.1 </pre>
32    
33     </body>
34     </section>
35     <section>
36 nightmorph 1.48 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
37 swift 1.1 <subsection>
38     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42 nightmorph 1.42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 nightmorph 1.48 users several possible kernels to choose from. A full listing with description
45     is available at the
46     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel Guide</uri>.
47 swift 1.1 </p>
48    
49     <p>
50 nightmorph 1.48 We suggest using <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC, which is a recent 2.6 kernel.
51 swift 1.1 </p>
52    
53 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
54 nightmorph 1.46 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
55 swift 1.1 </pre>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.34 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
59 neysx 1.38 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
60 nightmorph 1.48 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval
61     id="kernel-version"/></c>. Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
62 swift 1.1 </p>
63    
64     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
65     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
66 nightmorph 1.48 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/>
67 swift 1.1 </pre>
68    
69     <p>
70 nightmorph 1.48 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
71     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
72     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
73     a more efficient configuration.
74 swift 1.1 </p>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
78     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
79     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
80     genkernel</uri> instead.
81 swift 1.1 </p>
82    
83     </body>
84     </subsection>
85     </section>
86     <section id="manual">
87 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
88 swift 1.1 <subsection>
89     <title>Introduction</title>
90     <body>
91    
92     <p>
93 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
94 nightmorph 1.42 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
95 nightmorph 1.48 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
96 swift 1.1 </p>
97    
98     <p>
99 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
100     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
101 nightmorph 1.48 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains the program
102     <c>lspci</c>. You will now be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted
103     environment. You may safely ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (such as pcilib:
104     cannot open /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively,
105     you can run <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results
106     are the same. You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the
107     Installation CD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
108     Another place to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the
109     kernel message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type
110     <c>dmesg</c> to see these kernel messages.
111 swift 1.1 </p>
112    
113     <p>
114 nightmorph 1.42 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
115 nightmorph 1.48 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
116     by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
117     has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
118 nightmorph 1.42 configuration menu.
119 swift 1.1 </p>
120    
121     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
122     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
123 josejx 1.43 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
124 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
125     </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
129     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
130     properly without additional tweaks).
131     </p>
132    
133     </body>
134     </subsection>
135     <subsection>
136     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
137     <body>
138    
139     <p>
140     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
141     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
142     </p>
143    
144 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
145 swift 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
146     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
151     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
152 nightmorph 1.42 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
153     <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
154     partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
155     an Apple computer.
156 swift 1.1 </p>
157    
158     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
159 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
160     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
161 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
162 dertobi123 1.6 [*] /proc file system support
163     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
164 nightmorph 1.42 Partition Types ---&gt;
165     [*] Amiga partition table support
166     [*] Macintosh partition map support
167 dertobi123 1.6
168 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
169 nightmorph 1.42 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
170     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
171 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
172 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
173     </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176 nightmorph 1.48 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
177     users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
178     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
182     File Systems ---&gt;
183     Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
184     &lt;*&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
185     &lt;*&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
186     </pre>
187    
188     <p>
189 swift 1.1 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
190     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
194 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
195 nightmorph 1.48 Network device support ---&gt;
196 neysx 1.4 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
197     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
198     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
199 swift 1.1 </pre>
200    
201     <p>
202 nightmorph 1.48 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
203     over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
204     perform kernel mode PPPoE.
205 swift 1.1 </p>
206    
207     <p>
208 nightmorph 1.48 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
209     newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
210     the BMAC driver.
211 swift 1.1 </p>
212    
213 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
214     Device Drivers ---&gt;
215     Network device support ---&gt;
216     Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
217     [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
218     &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
219     &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
220     &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
221     &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
222 swift 1.1 </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225 nightmorph 1.48 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
226 josejx 1.24 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
227 rane 1.50 that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
228 nightmorph 1.48 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
229 josejx 1.24 </p>
230    
231     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
232 nightmorph 1.42 Kernel options ---&gt;
233 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
234     Preemption Model
235     (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
236     (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
237 josejx 1.24 </pre>
238    
239     <p>
240 nightmorph 1.42 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
241     not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
242     dependencies in an initrd.
243 swift 1.34 </p>
244    
245     <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
246     Device Drivers ---&gt;
247     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
248     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
249     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
250     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
251     </pre>
252    
253     <p>
254     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
255     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
256     dependencies in an initrd.
257     </p>
258    
259     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
260     Device Drivers ---&gt;
261     USB support ---&gt;
262     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
263     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
264     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
265     </pre>
266    
267     <p>
268 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
269     boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
270     framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
271     framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
272     </p>
273    
274 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
275 josejx 1.33 Device Drivers ---&gt;
276     Graphics support ---&gt;
277     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
278     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
279     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
280     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
281     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
282     Console display driver support ---&gt;
283     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
284     </pre>
285    
286     <note>
287     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
288     optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
289 nightmorph 1.48 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video
290     line such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
291 josejx 1.33 </note>
292    
293     <p>
294 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
295     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
296     </p>
297    
298     </body>
299     </subsection>
300     <subsection id="compiling">
301     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
302     <body>
303    
304     <p>
305     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
306 nightmorph 1.48 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
307 swift 1.1 </p>
308    
309     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
310 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
311 swift 1.1 </pre>
312    
313     <p>
314 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
315 nightmorph 1.48 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
316     on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
317     BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
318 fox2mike 1.39 </p>
319    
320     <p>
321 nightmorph 1.48 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
322     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
323     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
324     using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
325     called zImage which can be found in
326     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
327 swift 1.1 </p>
328    
329     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
330 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
331 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
332 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
333 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
334 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
335 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
336 swift 1.1 </pre>
337    
338     <p>
339     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
340     Modules</uri>.
341     </p>
342    
343     </body>
344     </subsection>
345     </section>
346     <section id="kernel_modules">
347     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
348     <subsection>
349     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
350     <body>
351    
352     <p>
353 nightmorph 1.48 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
354     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
355     the modules if required.
356 swift 1.1 </p>
357    
358     <p>
359     To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
360     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
361     just compiled:
362     </p>
363    
364     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
365     # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
366     </pre>
367    
368     <p>
369 nightmorph 1.48 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x</c> module, edit the
370     <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and add the module to it, one module on a line.
371 swift 1.1 </p>
372    
373 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
374     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
375 swift 1.1 </pre>
376    
377 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
378 swift 1.1 3c59x
379     </pre>
380    
381     <p>
382 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
383     your System</uri>.
384     </p>
385    
386     </body>
387     </subsection>
388     </section>
389     <section id="genkernel">
390     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
391     <body>
392    
393     <p>
394 nightmorph 1.48 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
395     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
396     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
397     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
398     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
399     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
400     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
401     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
402     kernels.
403 swift 1.19 </p>
404    
405     <p>
406     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
407     </p>
408    
409     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
410     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
411     </pre>
412    
413     <p>
414     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
415     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
416 sejo 1.15 </p>
417 swift 1.19
418     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
419 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
420 swift 1.19 </pre>
421    
422     <p>
423 swift 1.34 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
424     initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
425     <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
426     <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
427     </p>
428    
429 josejx 1.44 <p>
430     Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
431 nightmorph 1.48 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
432 josejx 1.44 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
433 nightmorph 1.48 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
434     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
435 josejx 1.44 </p>
436    
437     <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
438     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
439     <comment>Remove this line</comment>
440     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
441     </pre>
442 nightmorph 1.42
443 swift 1.34 <p>
444     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
445     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
446     of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
447     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
448     quite a while to finish!
449 swift 1.19 </p>
450    
451     <p>
452     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
453     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
454 nightmorph 1.42 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
455 swift 1.34 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
456 nightmorph 1.48 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
457 swift 1.34 well.
458 swift 1.19 </p>
459    
460     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
461 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
462     </pre>
463    
464     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
465     # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
466 sejo 1.15 </pre>
467 swift 1.19
468 sejo 1.17 <p>
469 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
470     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
471     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
472 nightmorph 1.48 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
473 swift 1.19 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
474     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
475 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
476 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
477 sejo 1.17 </p>
478 swift 1.19
479     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
480 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
481     # <i>ls /boot/kernel-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/> /boot/initramfs-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/></i>
482 nightmorph 1.42 </pre>
483    
484     <p>
485 swift 1.19 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
486 swift 1.1 </p>
487    
488     </body>
489     </section>
490     </sections>

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