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Revision 1.56 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Aug 13 03:31:27 2007 UTC (7 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.55: +7 -5 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
looks like modprobe -l will only work for the running kernel, not for the kernel just compiled. fixed in all handbooks, bug 188250

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.56 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.55 2007/07/29 22:48:00 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 nightmorph 1.56 <version>8.4</version>
12     <date>2007-08-12</date>
13 swift 1.12
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Timezone</title>
16     <body>
17    
18     <p>
19 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 neysx 1.49 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 neysx 1.49 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24     GMT+8.
25 swift 1.1 </p>
26    
27     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 neysx 1.49 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 swift 1.1 </pre>
32    
33     </body>
34     </section>
35     <section>
36 nightmorph 1.48 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
37 swift 1.1 <subsection>
38     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42 nightmorph 1.42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 nightmorph 1.48 users several possible kernels to choose from. A full listing with description
45     is available at the
46     <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel Guide</uri>.
47 swift 1.1 </p>
48    
49     <p>
50 nightmorph 1.48 We suggest using <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC, which is a recent 2.6 kernel.
51 swift 1.1 </p>
52    
53 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
54 nightmorph 1.46 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
55 swift 1.1 </pre>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.34 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
59 neysx 1.38 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
60 nightmorph 1.48 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval
61     id="kernel-version"/></c>. Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
62 swift 1.1 </p>
63    
64     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
65     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
66 nightmorph 1.48 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/>
67 swift 1.1 </pre>
68    
69     <p>
70 nightmorph 1.48 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
71     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
72     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
73     a more efficient configuration.
74 swift 1.1 </p>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
78     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
79     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
80     genkernel</uri> instead.
81 swift 1.1 </p>
82    
83     </body>
84     </subsection>
85     </section>
86     <section id="manual">
87 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
88 swift 1.1 <subsection>
89     <title>Introduction</title>
90     <body>
91    
92     <p>
93 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
94 nightmorph 1.42 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
95 nightmorph 1.48 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
96 swift 1.1 </p>
97    
98     <p>
99 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
100     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
101 nightmorph 1.48 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains the program
102     <c>lspci</c>. You will now be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted
103     environment. You may safely ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (such as pcilib:
104     cannot open /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively,
105     you can run <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results
106     are the same. You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the
107     Installation CD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
108     Another place to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the
109     kernel message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type
110     <c>dmesg</c> to see these kernel messages.
111 swift 1.1 </p>
112    
113     <p>
114 nightmorph 1.42 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
115 nightmorph 1.48 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
116     by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
117     has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
118 nightmorph 1.42 configuration menu.
119 swift 1.1 </p>
120    
121     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
122     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
123 josejx 1.43 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
124 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
125     </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
129     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
130     properly without additional tweaks).
131     </p>
132    
133     </body>
134     </subsection>
135     <subsection>
136     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
137     <body>
138    
139     <p>
140     First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
141     You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
142     </p>
143    
144 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
145 swift 1.1 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
146     [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
151     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
152 nightmorph 1.42 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
153     <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
154     partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
155     an Apple computer.
156 swift 1.1 </p>
157    
158     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
159 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
160     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
161 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
162 dertobi123 1.6 [*] /proc file system support
163     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
164 nightmorph 1.42 Partition Types ---&gt;
165 josejx 1.53 [*] Advanced partition support
166     [*] Amiga partition table support
167     [*] Macintosh partition map support
168 dertobi123 1.6
169 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
170 nightmorph 1.42 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
171     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
172 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
173 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
174     </pre>
175    
176     <p>
177 nightmorph 1.48 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
178     users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
179     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
180     </p>
181    
182     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
183     File Systems ---&gt;
184     Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
185 josejx 1.53 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
186     &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
187 nightmorph 1.48 </pre>
188    
189     <p>
190 swift 1.1 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
191     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
192     </p>
193    
194     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
195 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 nightmorph 1.48 Network device support ---&gt;
197 neysx 1.4 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
198     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
199     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
200 swift 1.1 </pre>
201    
202     <p>
203 nightmorph 1.48 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
204     over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
205     perform kernel mode PPPoE.
206 swift 1.1 </p>
207    
208     <p>
209 nightmorph 1.48 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
210     newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
211     the BMAC driver.
212 swift 1.1 </p>
213    
214 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
215     Device Drivers ---&gt;
216     Network device support ---&gt;
217     Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
218     [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
219     &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
220     &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
221     &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
222 josejx 1.53 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
223 swift 1.1 </pre>
224    
225     <p>
226 nightmorph 1.48 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
227 josejx 1.24 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
228 rane 1.50 that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
229 nightmorph 1.48 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
230 josejx 1.24 </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
233 nightmorph 1.42 Kernel options ---&gt;
234 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
235     Preemption Model
236     (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
237     (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
238 josejx 1.24 </pre>
239    
240     <p>
241 nightmorph 1.42 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
242     not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
243     dependencies in an initrd.
244 swift 1.34 </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
247     Device Drivers ---&gt;
248     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
249     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
250     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
251     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
252     </pre>
253    
254     <p>
255     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
256     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
257     dependencies in an initrd.
258     </p>
259    
260     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
261     Device Drivers ---&gt;
262     USB support ---&gt;
263     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
264     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
265     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
266     </pre>
267    
268     <p>
269 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
270 nightmorph 1.54 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
271     Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
272     the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
273 josejx 1.33 </p>
274    
275 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
276 josejx 1.33 Device Drivers ---&gt;
277     Graphics support ---&gt;
278     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
279     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
280     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
281     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
282     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
283     Console display driver support ---&gt;
284     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
285     </pre>
286    
287     <note>
288     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
289     optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
290 nightmorph 1.48 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video
291     line such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
292 josejx 1.33 </note>
293    
294     <p>
295 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
296     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
297     </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </subsection>
301     <subsection id="compiling">
302     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
303     <body>
304    
305     <p>
306     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
307 nightmorph 1.48 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
308 swift 1.1 </p>
309    
310     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
311 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
312 swift 1.1 </pre>
313    
314     <p>
315 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
316 nightmorph 1.48 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
317     on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
318     BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
319 fox2mike 1.39 </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 nightmorph 1.48 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
323     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
324     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
325     using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
326     called zImage which can be found in
327     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
328 swift 1.1 </p>
329    
330     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
331 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
332 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
333 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
334 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
335 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
336 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
337 swift 1.1 </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
341     Modules</uri>.
342     </p>
343    
344     </body>
345     </subsection>
346     </section>
347     <section id="kernel_modules">
348     <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
349     <subsection>
350     <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
351     <body>
352    
353     <p>
354 nightmorph 1.48 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
355     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
356     the modules if required.
357 swift 1.1 </p>
358    
359     <p>
360 nightmorph 1.56 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
361     forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
362     just compiled:
363 swift 1.1 </p>
364    
365     <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
366 nightmorph 1.56 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
367 swift 1.1 </pre>
368    
369     <p>
370 nightmorph 1.48 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x</c> module, edit the
371     <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and add the module to it, one module on a line.
372 swift 1.1 </p>
373    
374 dertobi123 1.6 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
375     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
376 swift 1.1 </pre>
377    
378 pylon 1.7 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
379 swift 1.1 3c59x
380     </pre>
381    
382     <p>
383 swift 1.19 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
384     your System</uri>.
385     </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </subsection>
389     </section>
390     <section id="genkernel">
391     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
392     <body>
393    
394     <p>
395 nightmorph 1.48 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
396     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
397     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
398     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
399     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
400     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
401     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
402     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
403     kernels.
404 swift 1.19 </p>
405    
406     <p>
407     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
411     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
412     </pre>
413    
414     <p>
415     Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
416     location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
417 sejo 1.15 </p>
418 swift 1.19
419     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
420 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
421 swift 1.19 </pre>
422    
423     <p>
424 swift 1.34 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
425     initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
426     <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
427     <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
428     </p>
429    
430 josejx 1.44 <p>
431     Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
432 nightmorph 1.48 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
433 josejx 1.44 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
434 nightmorph 1.48 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
435     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
436 josejx 1.44 </p>
437    
438     <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
439     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
440     <comment>Remove this line</comment>
441     /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
442     </pre>
443 nightmorph 1.42
444 swift 1.34 <p>
445     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
446     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
447     of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
448     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
449     quite a while to finish!
450 swift 1.19 </p>
451    
452     <p>
453     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
454     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
455 nightmorph 1.42 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
456 swift 1.34 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
457 nightmorph 1.48 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
458 swift 1.34 well.
459 swift 1.19 </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
462 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
463     </pre>
464    
465     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
466     # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
467 sejo 1.15 </pre>
468 swift 1.19
469 sejo 1.17 <p>
470 swift 1.19 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
471     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
472     and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
473 nightmorph 1.48 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
474 swift 1.19 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
475     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
476 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
477 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
478 sejo 1.17 </p>
479 swift 1.19
480     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
481 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
482     # <i>ls /boot/kernel-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/> /boot/initramfs-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/></i>
483 nightmorph 1.42 </pre>
484    
485     <p>
486 swift 1.19 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
487 swift 1.1 </p>
488    
489     </body>
490     </section>
491     </sections>

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