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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.62 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.61 2010/07/21 00:52:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 nightmorph 1.62 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16     <version>10.1</version>
17 nightmorph 1.61 <date>2010-07-20</date>
18 swift 1.12
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.49 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.49 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 swift 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.49 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 swift 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41 nightmorph 1.48 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
42 swift 1.1 <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47 nightmorph 1.42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49 nightmorph 1.61 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52 swift 1.1 </p>
53    
54     <p>
55 nightmorph 1.61 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56     (kernel source patched for extra features).
57     </p>
58    
59     <p>
60     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 swift 1.1 </p>
62    
63 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 nightmorph 1.46 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 swift 1.1 </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68 nightmorph 1.61 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 swift 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 nightmorph 1.61 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 swift 1.1 </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80 swift 1.60 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82 nightmorph 1.48 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83 nightmorph 1.61 the best way to optimize your environment.
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 swift 1.60 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 swift 1.19 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 swift 1.1 <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 nightmorph 1.42 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 nightmorph 1.48 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 swift 1.1 </p>
107    
108     <p>
109 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 nightmorph 1.61 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 swift 1.1 </p>
119    
120     <p>
121 nightmorph 1.42 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
122 nightmorph 1.48 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
123     by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
124     has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
125 nightmorph 1.42 configuration menu.
126 swift 1.1 </p>
127    
128     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
129     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
130 josejx 1.43 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
131 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137     properly without additional tweaks).
138     </p>
139    
140     </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144     <body>
145    
146     <p>
147 nightmorph 1.58 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
148 swift 1.1 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
149 nightmorph 1.42 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
150 nightmorph 1.61 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
151 nightmorph 1.42 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
152     an Apple computer.
153 swift 1.1 </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
156 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
157     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
158 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
159 dertobi123 1.6 [*] /proc file system support
160     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
161 nightmorph 1.42 Partition Types ---&gt;
162 josejx 1.53 [*] Advanced partition support
163     [*] Amiga partition table support
164     [*] Macintosh partition map support
165 dertobi123 1.6
166 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
167 nightmorph 1.42 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
168     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
169 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
170 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 nightmorph 1.61 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
175 nightmorph 1.48 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
176     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
177     </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
180     File Systems ---&gt;
181     Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
182 josejx 1.53 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
183     &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
184 nightmorph 1.48 </pre>
185    
186     <p>
187 swift 1.1 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
188     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
192 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
193 nightmorph 1.48 Network device support ---&gt;
194 neysx 1.4 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
195     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
196     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
197 swift 1.1 </pre>
198    
199     <p>
200 nightmorph 1.48 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
201     over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
202     perform kernel mode PPPoE.
203 swift 1.1 </p>
204    
205     <p>
206 nightmorph 1.61 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
207     newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
208 nightmorph 1.48 the BMAC driver.
209 swift 1.1 </p>
210    
211 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
212     Device Drivers ---&gt;
213     Network device support ---&gt;
214     Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
215     [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
216     &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
217     &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
218     &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
219 josejx 1.53 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
220 swift 1.1 </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223 nightmorph 1.48 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
224 nightmorph 1.61 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
225     that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
226 nightmorph 1.48 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
227 josejx 1.24 </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
230 nightmorph 1.42 Kernel options ---&gt;
231 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
232 swift 1.60 Preemption Model
233 nightmorph 1.48 (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
234     (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
235 josejx 1.24 </pre>
236    
237     <p>
238 nightmorph 1.61 If you're booting from FireWire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
239 nightmorph 1.42 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
240     dependencies in an initrd.
241 swift 1.34 </p>
242    
243 nightmorph 1.61 <pre caption="Enable support for FireWire devices on boot">
244 swift 1.34 Device Drivers ---&gt;
245     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
246     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
247     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
248     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
249     </pre>
250    
251     <p>
252     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
253     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
254     dependencies in an initrd.
255     </p>
256    
257     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
258     Device Drivers ---&gt;
259     USB support ---&gt;
260     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
261     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
262     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
263     </pre>
264    
265     <p>
266 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
267 nightmorph 1.61 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
268     Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
269 nightmorph 1.54 the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
270 josejx 1.33 </p>
271    
272 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
273 josejx 1.33 Device Drivers ---&gt;
274     Graphics support ---&gt;
275     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
276     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
277     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
278     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
279     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
280     Console display driver support ---&gt;
281     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
282     </pre>
283    
284     <note>
285     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
286 nightmorph 1.61 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which to use
287     by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video line
288     such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
289 josejx 1.33 </note>
290    
291     <p>
292 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
293     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
294     </p>
295    
296     </body>
297     </subsection>
298     <subsection id="compiling">
299     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
300     <body>
301    
302     <p>
303 swift 1.60 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
304 nightmorph 1.48 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
305 swift 1.1 </p>
306    
307     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
308 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
309 swift 1.1 </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
313 nightmorph 1.48 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
314 swift 1.60 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
315 nightmorph 1.48 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
316 fox2mike 1.39 </p>
317    
318     <p>
319 nightmorph 1.48 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
320     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
321     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
322     using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
323     called zImage which can be found in
324     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
325 swift 1.1 </p>
326    
327     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
328 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
329 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
330 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
331 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
332 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
333 nightmorph 1.61 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
334 swift 1.1 </pre>
335    
336     <p>
337 nightmorph 1.58 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
338 swift 1.19 </p>
339    
340     </body>
341     </subsection>
342     </section>
343     <section id="genkernel">
344     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348 nightmorph 1.48 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
349     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
350     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
351     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
352     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
353     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
354     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
355     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
356     kernels.
357 swift 1.19 </p>
358    
359     <p>
360     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
361     </p>
362    
363     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
364     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
365     </pre>
366    
367     <p>
368 swift 1.60 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
369 swift 1.19 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
370 sejo 1.15 </p>
371 swift 1.19
372     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
373 swift 1.21 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
374 swift 1.19 </pre>
375    
376     <p>
377 nightmorph 1.61 If you are using FireWire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
378     initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
379     <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for FireWire support or
380 swift 1.34 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
381     </p>
382    
383 josejx 1.44 <p>
384     Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
385 nightmorph 1.48 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
386 josejx 1.44 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
387 nightmorph 1.48 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
388     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
389 josejx 1.44 </p>
390    
391     <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
392     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
393     <comment>Remove this line</comment>
394 swift 1.60 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
395 josejx 1.44 </pre>
396 nightmorph 1.42
397 swift 1.34 <p>
398     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
399     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
400 swift 1.60 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
401     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
402 swift 1.34 quite a while to finish!
403 swift 1.19 </p>
404    
405     <p>
406     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
407     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
408 swift 1.60 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
409 swift 1.34 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
410 nightmorph 1.48 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
411 swift 1.34 well.
412 swift 1.19 </p>
413    
414     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
415 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
416     </pre>
417    
418     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
419     # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
420 sejo 1.15 </pre>
421 swift 1.19
422 sejo 1.17 <p>
423 swift 1.60 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
424     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
425 swift 1.19 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
426 nightmorph 1.48 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
427 swift 1.60 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
428     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
429 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
430 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
431 sejo 1.17 </p>
432 swift 1.19
433     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
434 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
435 nightmorph 1.61 # <i>ls /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/> /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/></i>
436 nightmorph 1.42 </pre>
437    
438     <p>
439 nightmorph 1.58 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
440 swift 1.1 </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </section>
444 nightmorph 1.58 <section id="kernel_modules">
445     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
446    
447     <subsection>
448     <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
449     </subsection>
450    
451     </section>
452 swift 1.1 </sections>

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