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Revision 1.64 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Sep 5 01:57:09 2010 UTC (4 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.63: +6 -6 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
update genkernel locations, punt special pegasos genkernel info that doesn't seem to apply anymore. there's nothing pegasos-specific shipped with genkernel these days. bug 336010.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.64 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.63 2010/08/01 18:18:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 nightmorph 1.62 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.64 <version>10.3</version>
17     <date>2010-09-04</date>
18 swift 1.12
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.49 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.49 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 swift 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 neysx 1.49 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 swift 1.1 </pre>
37    
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41 nightmorph 1.48 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
42 swift 1.1 <subsection>
43     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47 nightmorph 1.42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49 nightmorph 1.61 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51     Guide</uri>.
52 swift 1.1 </p>
53    
54     <p>
55 nightmorph 1.61 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56     (kernel source patched for extra features).
57     </p>
58    
59     <p>
60     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 swift 1.1 </p>
62    
63 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 nightmorph 1.46 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 swift 1.1 </pre>
66    
67     <p>
68 nightmorph 1.61 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 swift 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 nightmorph 1.61 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 swift 1.1 </pre>
78    
79     <p>
80 swift 1.60 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82 nightmorph 1.48 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83 nightmorph 1.61 the best way to optimize your environment.
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 swift 1.60 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 swift 1.19 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     </section>
96     <section id="manual">
97 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 swift 1.1 <subsection>
99     <title>Introduction</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 nightmorph 1.42 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 nightmorph 1.48 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 swift 1.1 </p>
107    
108     <p>
109 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 nightmorph 1.61 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 swift 1.1 </p>
119    
120     <p>
121 nightmorph 1.42 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
122 nightmorph 1.48 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
123     by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
124     has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
125 nightmorph 1.42 configuration menu.
126 swift 1.1 </p>
127    
128     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
129     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
130 josejx 1.43 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
131 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137     properly without additional tweaks).
138     </p>
139    
140     </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144     <body>
145    
146     <p>
147 nightmorph 1.58 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
148 swift 1.1 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
149 nightmorph 1.42 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
150 nightmorph 1.61 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
151 nightmorph 1.42 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
152     an Apple computer.
153 swift 1.1 </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
156 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
157     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
158 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
159 dertobi123 1.6 [*] /proc file system support
160     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
161 nightmorph 1.42 Partition Types ---&gt;
162 josejx 1.53 [*] Advanced partition support
163     [*] Amiga partition table support
164     [*] Macintosh partition map support
165 dertobi123 1.6
166 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
167 nightmorph 1.42 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
168     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
169 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
170 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 nightmorph 1.61 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
175 nightmorph 1.48 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
176     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
177     </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
180     File Systems ---&gt;
181     Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
182 josejx 1.53 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
183     &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
184 nightmorph 1.48 </pre>
185    
186     <p>
187 swift 1.1 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
188     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
192 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
193 nightmorph 1.48 Network device support ---&gt;
194 neysx 1.4 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
195     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
196     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
197 swift 1.1 </pre>
198    
199     <p>
200 nightmorph 1.48 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
201     over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
202     perform kernel mode PPPoE.
203 swift 1.1 </p>
204    
205     <p>
206 nightmorph 1.61 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
207     newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
208 nightmorph 1.48 the BMAC driver.
209 swift 1.1 </p>
210    
211 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
212     Device Drivers ---&gt;
213     Network device support ---&gt;
214     Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
215     [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
216     &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
217     &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
218     &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
219 josejx 1.53 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
220 swift 1.1 </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223 nightmorph 1.61 If you're booting from FireWire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
224 nightmorph 1.42 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
225     dependencies in an initrd.
226 swift 1.34 </p>
227    
228 nightmorph 1.61 <pre caption="Enable support for FireWire devices on boot">
229 swift 1.34 Device Drivers ---&gt;
230     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
231     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
232     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
233     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
234     </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
238     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
239     dependencies in an initrd.
240     </p>
241    
242     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
243     Device Drivers ---&gt;
244     USB support ---&gt;
245     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
246     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
247     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
248     </pre>
249    
250     <p>
251 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
252 nightmorph 1.61 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
253     Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
254 nightmorph 1.54 the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
255 josejx 1.33 </p>
256    
257 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
258 josejx 1.33 Device Drivers ---&gt;
259     Graphics support ---&gt;
260     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
261     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
262     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
263     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
264     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
265     Console display driver support ---&gt;
266     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
267     </pre>
268    
269     <note>
270     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
271 nightmorph 1.61 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which to use
272     by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video line
273     such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
274 josejx 1.33 </note>
275    
276     <p>
277 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
278     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
279     </p>
280    
281     </body>
282     </subsection>
283     <subsection id="compiling">
284     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
285     <body>
286    
287     <p>
288 swift 1.60 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
289 nightmorph 1.48 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
290 swift 1.1 </p>
291    
292     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
293 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
294 swift 1.1 </pre>
295    
296     <p>
297 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
298 nightmorph 1.48 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
299 swift 1.60 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
300 nightmorph 1.48 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
301 fox2mike 1.39 </p>
302    
303     <p>
304 nightmorph 1.48 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
305     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
306     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
307     using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
308     called zImage which can be found in
309     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
310 swift 1.1 </p>
311    
312     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
313 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
314 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
315 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
316 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
317 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
318 nightmorph 1.61 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
319 swift 1.1 </pre>
320    
321     <p>
322 nightmorph 1.58 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
323 swift 1.19 </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </subsection>
327     </section>
328     <section id="genkernel">
329     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
330     <body>
331    
332     <p>
333 nightmorph 1.48 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
334     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
335     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
336     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
337     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
338     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
339     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
340     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
341     kernels.
342 swift 1.19 </p>
343    
344     <p>
345     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
346     </p>
347    
348     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
349     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
350     </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353 swift 1.60 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
354 swift 1.19 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
355 sejo 1.15 </p>
356 swift 1.19
357     <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
358 nightmorph 1.64 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/arch/ppc/kernel-config</i>
359 swift 1.19 </pre>
360    
361     <p>
362 nightmorph 1.61 If you are using FireWire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
363 nightmorph 1.64 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/arch/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
364 nightmorph 1.61 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for FireWire support or
365 swift 1.34 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
366     </p>
367    
368 josejx 1.44 <p>
369     Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
370 nightmorph 1.48 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
371 josejx 1.44 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
372 nightmorph 1.48 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
373     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
374 josejx 1.44 </p>
375    
376     <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
377     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
378     <comment>Remove this line</comment>
379 swift 1.60 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
380 josejx 1.44 </pre>
381 nightmorph 1.42
382 swift 1.34 <p>
383     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
384     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
385 swift 1.60 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
386     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
387 swift 1.34 quite a while to finish!
388 swift 1.19 </p>
389    
390     <p>
391     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
392     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
393 swift 1.60 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
394 swift 1.34 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
395 nightmorph 1.48 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
396 swift 1.34 well.
397 swift 1.19 </p>
398    
399     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
400 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
401     </pre>
402    
403     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
404 nightmorph 1.64 # <i>genkernel --genzimage all</i>
405 sejo 1.15 </pre>
406 swift 1.19
407 sejo 1.17 <p>
408 swift 1.60 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
409     <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
410 swift 1.19 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
411 nightmorph 1.48 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
412 swift 1.60 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
413     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
414 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
415 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
416 sejo 1.17 </p>
417 swift 1.19
418     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
419 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
420 nightmorph 1.61 # <i>ls /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/> /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/></i>
421 nightmorph 1.42 </pre>
422    
423     <p>
424 nightmorph 1.58 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
425 swift 1.1 </p>
426    
427     </body>
428     </section>
429 nightmorph 1.58 <section id="kernel_modules">
430     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
431    
432     <subsection>
433     <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
434     </subsection>
435    
436     </section>
437 swift 1.1 </sections>

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