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Fix bug #405271 (thanks to Ogelpre) to update /etc/timezone wherever we say to update /etc/localtime as it is /etc/timezone that is the master, read by timezone-data to update localtime

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.69 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.68 2011/09/03 07:18:27 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.12
11 nightmorph 1.62 <abstract>
12     The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13     explains how to configure your kernel.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.69 <version>14</version>
17     <date>2012-02-22</date>
18 swift 1.12
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20     <title>Timezone</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24 neysx 1.36 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 neysx 1.49 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26     it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 neysx 1.36 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 neysx 1.49 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29     GMT+8.
30 swift 1.1 </p>
31    
32     <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34 swift 1.69 <comment>(Suppose you want to use Europe/Brussels)</comment>
35     # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
36     <comment>(Next set the timezone)</comment>
37     # <i>echo "Europe/Brussels" &gt; /etc/timezone</i>
38 swift 1.1 </pre>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43 nightmorph 1.48 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
44 swift 1.1 <subsection>
45     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
46     <body>
47    
48     <p>
49 nightmorph 1.42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
50     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
51 nightmorph 1.61 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
52     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
53     Guide</uri>.
54 swift 1.1 </p>
55    
56     <p>
57 nightmorph 1.61 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
58     (kernel source patched for extra features).
59     </p>
60    
61     <p>
62     Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65 nightmorph 1.42 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
66 nightmorph 1.46 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
67 swift 1.1 </pre>
68    
69     <p>
70 nightmorph 1.61 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
71     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
72     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
73     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
74 swift 1.1 </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
77     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
78 nightmorph 1.61 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
79 swift 1.1 </pre>
80    
81     <p>
82 swift 1.60 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
83     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
84 nightmorph 1.48 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
85 nightmorph 1.61 the best way to optimize your environment.
86 swift 1.1 </p>
87    
88     <p>
89 swift 1.19 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
90 swift 1.60 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
91     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
92 swift 1.19 genkernel</uri> instead.
93 swift 1.1 </p>
94    
95     </body>
96     </subsection>
97     </section>
98     <section id="manual">
99 swift 1.19 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
100 swift 1.1 <subsection>
101     <title>Introduction</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105 neysx 1.10 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
106 nightmorph 1.42 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
107 nightmorph 1.48 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
108 swift 1.1 </p>
109    
110     <p>
111 neysx 1.37 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
112 nightmorph 1.61 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
113     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
114     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
115     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
116     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
117     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
118     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
119     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
120 swift 1.1 </p>
121    
122     <p>
123 nightmorph 1.42 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
124 nightmorph 1.48 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
125     by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
126     has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
127 nightmorph 1.42 configuration menu.
128 swift 1.1 </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
131     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
132 josejx 1.43 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
133 swift 1.1 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
134     </pre>
135    
136     <p>
137     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
138     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
139     properly without additional tweaks).
140     </p>
141    
142     </body>
143     </subsection>
144     <subsection>
145     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
146     <body>
147    
148     <p>
149 nightmorph 1.58 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
150 swift 1.1 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
151 nightmorph 1.42 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
152 nightmorph 1.61 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
153 nightmorph 1.42 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
154     an Apple computer.
155 swift 1.1 </p>
156    
157     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
158 dertobi123 1.6 File systems ---&gt;
159     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
160 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
161 dertobi123 1.6 [*] /proc file system support
162     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
163 nightmorph 1.42 Partition Types ---&gt;
164 josejx 1.53 [*] Advanced partition support
165     [*] Amiga partition table support
166     [*] Macintosh partition map support
167 dertobi123 1.6
168 swift 1.1 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
169 nightmorph 1.42 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
170     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
171 swift 1.34 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
172 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
173     </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176 nightmorph 1.61 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
177 nightmorph 1.48 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
178     users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
182     File Systems ---&gt;
183     Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
184 josejx 1.53 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
185     &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
186 nightmorph 1.48 </pre>
187    
188     <p>
189 swift 1.1 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
190     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
194 neysx 1.4 Device Drivers ---&gt;
195 nightmorph 1.48 Network device support ---&gt;
196 neysx 1.4 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
197     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
198     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
199 swift 1.1 </pre>
200    
201     <p>
202 nightmorph 1.48 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
203     over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
204     perform kernel mode PPPoE.
205 swift 1.1 </p>
206    
207     <p>
208 nightmorph 1.61 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
209     newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
210 nightmorph 1.48 the BMAC driver.
211 swift 1.1 </p>
212    
213 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
214     Device Drivers ---&gt;
215     Network device support ---&gt;
216     Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
217     [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
218     &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
219     &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
220     &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
221 josejx 1.53 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
222 swift 1.1 </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225 nightmorph 1.61 If you're booting from FireWire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
226 nightmorph 1.42 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
227     dependencies in an initrd.
228 swift 1.34 </p>
229    
230 nightmorph 1.61 <pre caption="Enable support for FireWire devices on boot">
231 swift 1.34 Device Drivers ---&gt;
232     IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
233     &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
234     &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
235     &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
236     </pre>
237    
238     <p>
239     If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
240     want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
241     dependencies in an initrd.
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
245     Device Drivers ---&gt;
246     USB support ---&gt;
247     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
248     &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
249     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
250     </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253 josejx 1.33 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
254 nightmorph 1.61 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
255     Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
256 nightmorph 1.54 the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
257 josejx 1.33 </p>
258    
259 nightmorph 1.48 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
260 josejx 1.33 Device Drivers ---&gt;
261     Graphics support ---&gt;
262     &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
263     [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
264     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
265     &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
266     &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
267     Console display driver support ---&gt;
268     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
269     </pre>
270    
271     <note>
272     If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
273 nightmorph 1.61 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which to use
274     by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video line
275     such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
276 josejx 1.33 </note>
277    
278     <p>
279 swift 1.1 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
280     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
281     </p>
282    
283     </body>
284     </subsection>
285     <subsection id="compiling">
286     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
287     <body>
288    
289     <p>
290 swift 1.60 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
291 nightmorph 1.48 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
292 swift 1.1 </p>
293    
294     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
295 swift 1.34 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
296 swift 1.1 </pre>
297    
298     <p>
299 neysx 1.10 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
300 nightmorph 1.48 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
301 swift 1.60 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
302 nightmorph 1.48 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
303 fox2mike 1.39 </p>
304    
305     <p>
306 nightmorph 1.48 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
307     bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
308     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
309     using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
310     called zImage which can be found in
311     <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
312 swift 1.1 </p>
313    
314     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
315 fox2mike 1.39 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
316 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
317 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
318 nightmorph 1.48 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
319 fox2mike 1.39 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
320 nightmorph 1.61 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
321 swift 1.1 </pre>
322    
323     <p>
324 nightmorph 1.58 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
325 swift 1.19 </p>
326    
327     </body>
328     </subsection>
329     </section>
330     <section id="genkernel">
331     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335 nightmorph 1.48 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
336     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
337     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
338     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
339     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
340     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
341     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
342     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
343     kernels.
344 swift 1.19 </p>
345    
346     <p>
347     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
348     </p>
349    
350     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
351     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
352     </pre>
353    
354     <p>
355 nightmorph 1.61 If you are using FireWire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
356 nightmorph 1.64 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/arch/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
357 nightmorph 1.61 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for FireWire support or
358 swift 1.34 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
359     </p>
360    
361 josejx 1.44 <p>
362     Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
363 nightmorph 1.48 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
364 josejx 1.44 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
365 nightmorph 1.48 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
366     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
367 josejx 1.44 </p>
368    
369     <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
370     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
371     <comment>Remove this line</comment>
372 swift 1.60 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
373 josejx 1.44 </pre>
374 nightmorph 1.42
375 swift 1.34 <p>
376     Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
377     For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
378 swift 1.60 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
379     compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
380 swift 1.34 quite a while to finish!
381 swift 1.19 </p>
382    
383     <p>
384     Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
385     or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
386 swift 1.60 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
387 swift 1.68 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of LVM2
388     will probably want to add <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as well.
389 swift 1.19 </p>
390    
391     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
392 swift 1.34 # <i>genkernel all</i>
393     </pre>
394    
395     <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
396 nightmorph 1.64 # <i>genkernel --genzimage all</i>
397 sejo 1.15 </pre>
398 swift 1.19
399 sejo 1.17 <p>
400 swift 1.60 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
401 swift 1.66 <e>initial ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel
402 swift 1.19 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
403 nightmorph 1.48 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
404 swift 1.60 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
405     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
406 josejx 1.22 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
407 swift 1.34 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
408 sejo 1.17 </p>
409 swift 1.19
410     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
411 nightmorph 1.48 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
412 nightmorph 1.61 # <i>ls /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/> /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/></i>
413 nightmorph 1.42 </pre>
414    
415     <p>
416 nightmorph 1.58 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
417 swift 1.1 </p>
418    
419     </body>
420     </section>
421 nightmorph 1.58 <section id="kernel_modules">
422     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
423    
424     <subsection>
425     <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
426     </subsection>
427    
428     </section>
429 swift 1.1 </sections>

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