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#42823 - Separate architecture specific instructions in separate handbooks

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.3 2004/04/01 08:10:42 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Timezone</title>
12 <body>
13
14 <p>
15 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18 </p>
19
20 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 </body>
27 </section>
28 <section>
29 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39 Guide</uri>.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 For PPC you must use the <c>ppc-sources</c>. So let's continue with
44 <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
45 </p>
46
47 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
48 # <i>emerge ppc-sources</i>
49 </pre>
50
51 <p>
52 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
53 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
54 </p>
55
56 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
57 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
58 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.4.24
59 </pre>
60
61 <p>
62 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
63 change the symlink before you continue:
64 </p>
65
66 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
67 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; ln -s /usr/src/linux-2.4.24 /usr/src/linux</i>
68 </pre>
69
70 <p>
71 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. All architectures
72 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
73 by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
74 the best way to optimize your environment.
75 </p>
76
77 <p>
78 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
79 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
80 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
81 genkernel</uri> instead.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 </section>
87 <section id="manual">
88 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
89 <subsection>
90 <title>Introduction</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
95 Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
96 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
101 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
102 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
103 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
104 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
105 </p>
106
107 <p>
108 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
109 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
113 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
114 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
115 </pre>
116
117 <p>
118 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
119 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
120 properly without additional tweaks).
121 </p>
122
123 </body>
124 </subsection>
125 <subsection>
126 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
127 <body>
128
129 <p>
130 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
131 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
132 </p>
133
134 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
135 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
136 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
137 </pre>
138
139 <p>
140 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
141 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
142 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
143 file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
144 </p>
145
146 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
147 File systems ---&gt;
148 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
149 [*] /proc file system support
150 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
151 [*] Automatically mount at boot
152
153 <comment>(Deselect the following unless you have a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
154 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
155
156 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
157 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
158 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
159 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
160 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
161 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
162 </pre>
163
164 <note>
165 Users of a 2.6 kernel will find some of the mentioned options under <c>Pseudo
166 filesystems</c> which is a subpart of <c>File systems</c>.
167 </note>
168
169 <p>
170 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
171 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
172 </p>
173
174 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
175 Network device support ---&gt;
176 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
177 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
178 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
179 </pre>
180
181 <note>
182 Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Networking
183 support</c> which is a subpart of <c>Device Drivers</c>.
184 </note>
185
186 <p>
187 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
188 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
189 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
190 </p>
191
192 <note>
193 Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Device
194 Drivers</c>.
195 </note>
196
197 <p>
198 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
199 ethernet card.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 Disable ADB raw keycodes:
204 </p>
205
206 <pre caption="Disabling ADB raw keycodes">
207 Macintosh Device Drivers ---&gt;
208 [ ] Support for ADB raw keycodes
209 </pre>
210
211 <p>
212 Also choose the correct RTC support (<e>disable</e> the <c>Enhanced RTC</c>
213 option):
214 </p>
215
216 <pre caption="Activating the correct RTC option">
217 Character devices ---&gt;
218 [ ] Enhanced RTC
219
220 General setup ---&gt;
221 [*] Support for /dev/rtc
222 </pre>
223
224 <p>
225 Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
226 kernels to the MacOS partition.
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
230 File Systems ---&gt;
231 [*] HFS Support
232 </pre>
233
234 <p>
235 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
236 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
237 </p>
238
239 </body>
240 </subsection>
241 <subsection id="compiling">
242 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
243 <body>
244
245 <p>
246 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
247 the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
248 modules_install</c>:
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
252 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
253 </pre>
254
255 <p>
256 When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
257 <path>/boot</path>.
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
261 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
262 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
263 </pre>
264
265 <p>
266 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
267 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
268 </p>
269
270 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
271 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
272 </pre>
273
274 <p>
275 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
276 Modules</uri>.
277 </p>
278
279 </body>
280 </subsection>
281 </section>
282 <section id="genkernel">
283 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
284 <body>
285
286 <p>
287 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
288 script to configure your kernel for you.
289 </p>
290
291 <p>
292 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
293 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
294 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
295 way our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
296 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
297 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel
298 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
299 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
300 </p>
301
302 <p>
303 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
307 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 <p>
311 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>.
312 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
313 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
314 </p>
315
316 <p>
317 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
318 need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c>
319 and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a
320 module).
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
324 # <i>genkernel all</i>
325 GenKernel v3.0.1_beta10
326 * ARCH: ppc
327 * KERNEL VER: 2.4.24
328 * kernel: configuring source
329 * kernel: running mrproper
330 <comment>(Output removed to increase readability)</comment>
331 * Kernel compiled successfully!
332 * Required Kernel Params:
333 * : root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/$ROOT
334 * where $ROOT is the devicenode for your root partition as
335 * you should have specified in /etc/fstab
336 *
337 * You MUST tell your bootloader to use the generated initrd
338 *
339 * Recommended Kernel Params:
340 * : vga=0x317 splash=verbose
341 *
342 * Do NOT report kernel bugs (configs included) as genkernel bugs.
343 * Make sure you have the latest genkernel before reporting bugs
344 *
345 * For more info see /usr/share/genkernel/README
346 </pre>
347
348 <p>
349 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
350 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
351 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
352 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
353 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
354 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before
355 your "real" system starts up.
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
359 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
360 </pre>
361
362 <p>
363 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
364 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
365 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
366 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
367 </p>
368
369 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
370 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
371 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 <section id="kernel_modules">
377 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
378 <subsection>
379 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
384 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
385 </p>
386
387 <table>
388 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
389 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
390 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
391 <tr>
392 <th>Ebuild</th>
393 <th>Purpose</th>
394 <th>Command</th>
395 </tr>
396 <tr>
397 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
398 <ti>
399 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
400 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
401 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
402 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
403 </ti>
404 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
405 </tr>
406 </table>
407
408 <p>
409 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
410 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
411 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
412 </p>
413
414 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
415 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
416 </pre>
417
418 </body>
419 </subsection>
420 <subsection>
421 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
422 <body>
423
424 <p>
425 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
426 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
427 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
428 </p>
429
430 <p>
431 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
432 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
433 just compiled:
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
437 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
442 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
443 name in it.
444 </p>
445
446 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
447 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
448 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
449 </pre>
450
451 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
452 3c59x
453 </pre>
454
455 <p>
456 Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
457 <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
461 # <i>modules-update</i>
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
466 your System</uri>.
467 </p>
468
469 </body>
470 </subsection>
471 </section>
472 </sections>

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