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Fixes bug #92084.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.23 2005/04/16 21:47:06 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.4</version>
12 <date>2005-04-16</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 For PPC you can choose between <c>vanilla-sources</c> and
48 <c>gentoo-sources</c> (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you
49 perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special
50 kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: <c>pegasos-sources</c>. So let's
51 continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
52 </p>
53
54 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 </pre>
57
58 <note>
59 The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from
60 2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced
61 several problems on different PowerPC machines.
62 </note>
63
64 <p>
65 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel
67 source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8</c>:
68 </p>
69
70 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77 <c>linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78 right kernel:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 <p>
88 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
91 it is the best way to optimize your environment.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98 genkernel</uri> instead.
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 </section>
104 <section id="manual">
105 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 <subsection>
107 <title>Introduction</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
119 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
120 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD uses
121 (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
126 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
127 </p>
128
129 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
130 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
131 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132 </pre>
133
134 <p>
135 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137 properly without additional tweaks).
138 </p>
139
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
148 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
149 </p>
150
151 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
152 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
153 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
158 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
159 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
160 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
164 File systems ---&gt;
165 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
166 [*] /proc file system support
167 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
168 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
169
170 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
171 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
172 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
173 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
174 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
175 </pre>
176
177 <p>
178 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
179 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
180 </p>
181
182 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
183 Device Drivers ---&gt;
184 Networking support ---&gt;
185 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
186 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
187 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
192 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
193 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
194 </p>
195
196 <p>
197 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
198 ethernet card.
199 </p>
200
201 <p>
202 Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
203 kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is
204 needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
205 </p>
206
207 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
208 File Systems ---&gt;
209 [*] HFS Support
210 </pre>
211
212 <p>
213 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
214 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
215 that you do not use this feature.
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
219 Platform options ---&gt;
220 [ ] Preemptible Kernel
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
225 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </subsection>
230 <subsection id="compiling">
231 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
236 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
240 # <i>make all &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
245 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
246 </p>
247
248 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
249 <comment>replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version</comment>
250 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
251 (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
252 </pre>
253
254 <p>
255 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
256 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
260 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</i>
261 </pre>
262
263 <p>
264 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
265 Modules</uri>.
266 </p>
267
268 </body>
269 </subsection>
270 </section>
271 <section id="kernel_modules">
272 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
273 <subsection>
274 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
275 <body>
276
277 <p>
278 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
279 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
280 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
285 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
286 just compiled:
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
290 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
291 </pre>
292
293 <p>
294 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
295 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
296 name in it.
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
300 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
301 </pre>
302
303 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
304 3c59x
305 </pre>
306
307 <p>
308 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
309 your System</uri>.
310 </p>
311
312 </body>
313 </subsection>
314 </section>
315 <section id="genkernel">
316 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
321 script to configure your kernel for you.
322 </p>
323
324 <p>
325 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
326 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
327 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
328 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
329 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
330 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
331 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
332 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
333 </p>
334
335 <p>
336 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
340 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
345 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
349 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
354 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
355 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
356 </p>
357
358 <p>
359 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
360 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
361 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e>
362 the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably
363 want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
364 </p>
365
366 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
367 # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
368 </pre>
369
370 <p>
371 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
372 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
373 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
374 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
375 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
376 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
377 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
378 boot arguments, these are required for a sucessful boot with genkernel.
379 </p>
380
381 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
382 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
383 </pre>
384
385 <p>
386 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
387 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
388 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
389 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
390 </p>
391
392 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
393 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
394 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
395 </pre>
396
397 <p>
398 If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you will need to install
399 and setup <c>hotplug</c> as well:
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
403 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
404 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
405 </pre>
406
407 <p>
408 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
409 </p>
410
411 </body>
412 </section>
413
414 </sections>

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