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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.25 2005/05/29 19:23:30 josejx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.6</version>
12 <date>2005-06-02</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 For PPC you can choose between <c>vanilla-sources</c> and
48 <c>gentoo-sources</c> (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you
49 perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special
50 kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: <c>pegasos-sources</c>. So let's
51 continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
52 </p>
53
54 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 </pre>
57
58 <note>
59 The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from
60 2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced
61 several problems on different PowerPC machines.
62 </note>
63
64 <p>
65 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel
67 source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8</c>:
68 </p>
69
70 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77 <c>linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78 right kernel:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 <p>
88 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
91 it is the best way to optimize your environment.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98 genkernel</uri> instead.
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 </section>
104 <section id="manual">
105 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 <subsection>
107 <title>Introduction</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
119 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lscpi</c>. You will now
120 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
121 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
122 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
123 <c>lscpi</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
124 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
125 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
126 </p>
127
128 <p>
129 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
130 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
131 </p>
132
133 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
134 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
135 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
136 </pre>
137
138 <p>
139 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
140 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
141 properly without additional tweaks).
142 </p>
143
144 </body>
145 </subsection>
146 <subsection>
147 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
152 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
156 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
157 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
158 </pre>
159
160 <p>
161 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
162 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
163 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
164 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
165 </p>
166
167 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
168 File systems ---&gt;
169 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
170 [*] /proc file system support
171 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
172 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
173
174 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
175 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
176 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
177 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
178 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
179 </pre>
180
181 <p>
182 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
183 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
184 </p>
185
186 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
187 Device Drivers ---&gt;
188 Networking support ---&gt;
189 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
190 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
191 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
192 </pre>
193
194 <p>
195 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
196 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
197 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
198 </p>
199
200 <p>
201 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
202 ethernet card.
203 </p>
204
205 <p>
206 Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
207 kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is
208 needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
212 File Systems ---&gt;
213 [*] HFS Support
214 </pre>
215
216 <p>
217 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
218 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
219 that you do not use this feature.
220 </p>
221
222 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
223 Platform options ---&gt;
224 [ ] Preemptible Kernel
225 </pre>
226
227 <p>
228 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
229 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
230 </p>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 <subsection id="compiling">
235 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
236 <body>
237
238 <p>
239 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
240 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
241 </p>
242
243 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
244 # <i>make all &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
245 </pre>
246
247 <p>
248 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
249 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
253 <comment>replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version</comment>
254 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
255 (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
256 </pre>
257
258 <p>
259 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
260 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
261 </p>
262
263 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
264 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</i>
265 </pre>
266
267 <p>
268 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
269 Modules</uri>.
270 </p>
271
272 </body>
273 </subsection>
274 </section>
275 <section id="kernel_modules">
276 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
277 <subsection>
278 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
283 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
284 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
285 </p>
286
287 <p>
288 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
289 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
290 just compiled:
291 </p>
292
293 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
294 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 <p>
298 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
299 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
300 name in it.
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
304 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
305 </pre>
306
307 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
308 3c59x
309 </pre>
310
311 <p>
312 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
313 your System</uri>.
314 </p>
315
316 </body>
317 </subsection>
318 </section>
319 <section id="genkernel">
320 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
321 <body>
322
323 <p>
324 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
325 script to configure your kernel for you.
326 </p>
327
328 <p>
329 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
330 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
331 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
332 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
333 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
334 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
335 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
336 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
337 </p>
338
339 <p>
340 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
344 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
345 </pre>
346
347 <p>
348 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
349 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
353 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
354 </pre>
355
356 <p>
357 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
358 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
359 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
360 </p>
361
362 <p>
363 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
364 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
365 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e>
366 the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably
367 want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
371 # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 <p>
375 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
376 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
377 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
378 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
379 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
380 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
381 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
382 boot arguments, these are required for a sucessful boot with genkernel.
383 </p>
384
385 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
386 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
387 </pre>
388
389 <p>
390 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
391 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
392 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
393 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
394 </p>
395
396 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
397 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
398 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
399 </pre>
400
401 <p>
402 If you want your system to react to hotplugging events, you will need to install
403 and setup <c>hotplug</c> as well:
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
407 # <i>emerge hotplug</i>
408 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
409 </pre>
410
411 <p>
412 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
413 </p>
414
415 </body>
416 </section>
417
418 </sections>

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