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#49831 - Use relative links for kernel source; some ebuilds break otherwise

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.2 2004/04/28 07:52:30 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Timezone</title>
12 <body>
13
14 <p>
15 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18 </p>
19
20 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
23 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 </body>
27 </section>
28 <section>
29 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
36 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
37 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
38 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
39 Guide</uri>.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 For PPC you can choose between <c>ppc-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources-benh</c>,
44 <c>ppc-sources-dev</c>, <c>ppc-sources-crypto</c> and
45 <c>ppc-development-sources</c>. This latter kernel is available when you
46 perform a networkless installation. So let's continue with
47 <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
48 </p>
49
50 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
51 # <i>emerge ppc-development-sources</i>
52 </pre>
53
54 <p>
55 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
56 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source:
57 </p>
58
59 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
60 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
61 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.1
62 </pre>
63
64 <p>
65 If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source)
66 change the symlink before you continue:
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
70 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
71 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
72 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.1 linux</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. All architectures
77 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
78 by the LiveCD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
79 the best way to optimize your environment.
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 Continue now with <uri link="#manual">Manual Configuration</uri>.
84 </p>
85
86 </body>
87 </subsection>
88 </section>
89 <section id="manual">
90 <title>Manual Configuration</title>
91 <subsection>
92 <title>Introduction</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult course every
97 Linux users ever has to go through. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
98 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
103 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the
104 contents of <path>/proc/pci</path> (or by using <c>lspci</c> if available). You
105 can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might
106 provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
111 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
112 </p>
113
114 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
115 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
116 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
121 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
122 properly without additional tweaks).
123 </p>
124
125 </body>
126 </subsection>
127 <subsection>
128 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <p>
132 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
133 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
137 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
138 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
143 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
144 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c>, <c>/proc
145 file system</c>, <c>/dev file system</c> + <c>Automatically mount at boot</c>:
146 </p>
147
148 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
149 File systems ---&gt;
150 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
151 [*] /proc file system support
152 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
153 [*] Automatically mount at boot
154
155 <comment>(Deselect the following unless you have a 2.6 kernel)</comment>
156 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
157
158 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
159 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
160 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
161 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
162 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
163 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
164 </pre>
165
166 <note>
167 Users of a 2.6 kernel will find some of the mentioned options under <c>Pseudo
168 filesystems</c> which is a subpart of <c>File systems</c>.
169 </note>
170
171 <p>
172 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
173 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
177 Network device support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
179 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
180 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
181 </pre>
182
183 <note>
184 Users of a 2.6 kernel will find the mentioned options under <c>Networking
185 support</c> which is a subpart of <c>Device Drivers</c>.
186 </note>
187
188 <p>
189 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
190 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
191 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
192 </p>
193
194 <p>
195 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
196 ethernet card.
197 </p>
198
199 <p>
200 Disable ADB raw keycodes:
201 </p>
202
203 <pre caption="Disabling ADB raw keycodes">
204 Macintosh Device Drivers ---&gt;
205 [ ] Support for ADB raw keycodes
206 </pre>
207
208 <p>
209 Also choose the correct RTC support (<e>disable</e> the <c>Enhanced RTC</c>
210 option):
211 </p>
212
213 <pre caption="Activating the correct RTC option">
214 Character devices ---&gt;
215 [ ] Enhanced RTC
216
217 General setup ---&gt;
218 [*] Support for /dev/rtc
219 </pre>
220
221 <p>
222 Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
223 kernels to the MacOS partition.
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
227 File Systems ---&gt;
228 [*] HFS Support
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
233 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
234 </p>
235
236 </body>
237 </subsection>
238 <subsection id="compiling">
239 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
240 <body>
241
242 <p>
243 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
244 the configuration and run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules
245 modules_install</c> or on the Pegasos run <c>make dep &amp;&amp; make zImage
246 modules modules_install</c>:
247 </p>
248
249 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
250 (Apple/IBM) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make vmlinux modules modules_install</i>
251 (Pegasos) # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make zImage modules modules_install</i>
252 </pre>
253
254 <p>
255 When the kernel is done compiling, copy over the kernel image to
256 <path>/boot</path>.
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
260 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
261 (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.4.24</i>
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 Also don't forget to copy over the system map:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Copying the system map">
269 # <i>cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.4.24</i>
270 </pre>
271
272 <p>
273 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
274 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
275 </p>
276
277 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
278 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.4.24</i>
279 </pre>
280
281 <p>
282 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
283 Modules</uri>.
284 </p>
285
286 </body>
287 </subsection>
288 </section>
289 <section id="kernel_modules">
290 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
291 <subsection>
292 <title>Installing Extra Modules</title>
293 <body>
294
295 <p>
296 If appropriate, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is
297 on your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
298 </p>
299
300 <table>
301 <tcolumn width="1in"/>
302 <tcolumn width="4in"/>
303 <tcolumn width="2in"/>
304 <tr>
305 <th>Ebuild</th>
306 <th>Purpose</th>
307 <th>Command</th>
308 </tr>
309 <tr>
310 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
311 <ti>
312 Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and
313 other cards for XFree86. Please check the <c>IUSE_VIDEO_CARDS</c> variable
314 in the <path>/usr/portage/x11-base/xfree-drm</path> ebuilds to see what you
315 need to fill in as <c>yourcard</c>.
316 </ti>
317 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
318 </tr>
319 </table>
320
321 <p>
322 Beware though, some of these ebuilds might deal with big dependencies. To verify
323 what packages will be installed by emerging an ebuild, use <c>emerge
324 --pretend</c>. For instance, for the <c>xfree-drm</c> package:
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="View full installation package listing">
328 # <i>emerge --pretend xfree-drm</i>
329 </pre>
330
331 </body>
332 </subsection>
333 <subsection>
334 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
335 <body>
336
337 <p>
338 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
339 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</path> (or <path>kernel-2.6</path>).
340 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
341 </p>
342
343 <p>
344 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
345 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
346 just compiled:
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
350 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
355 <path>kernel-2.4</path> or <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
356 name in it.
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4">
360 <comment>(Example for 2.4 kernels)</comment>
361 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4</i>
362 </pre>
363
364 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6">
365 3c59x
366 </pre>
367
368 <p>
369 Now run <c>modules-update</c> to commit your changes to the
370 <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file:
371 </p>
372
373 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
374 # <i>modules-update</i>
375 </pre>
376
377 <p>
378 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
379 your System</uri>.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 </section>
385 </sections>

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