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Added framebuffer section to kernel configuration.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.32 2005/07/29 17:11:30 josejx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.10</version>
12 <date>2005-08-06</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
21 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 For PPC you can choose between <c>vanilla-sources</c> and
48 <c>gentoo-sources</c> (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you
49 perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special
50 kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: <c>pegasos-sources</c>. So let's
51 continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel sources:
52 </p>
53
54 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
55 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
56 </pre>
57
58 <note>
59 The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from
60 2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced
61 several problems on different PowerPC machines.
62 </note>
63
64 <p>
65 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
66 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel
67 source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8</c>:
68 </p>
69
70 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77 <c>linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78 right kernel:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 <p>
88 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You
89 can use <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used
90 by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as
91 it is the best way to optimize your environment.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98 genkernel</uri> instead.
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 </section>
104 <section id="manual">
105 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 <subsection>
107 <title>Introduction</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
113 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
118 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
119 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
120 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
121 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
122 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
123 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
124 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
125 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
126 </p>
127
128 <p>
129 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
130 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
131 </p>
132
133 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
134 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
135 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
136 </pre>
137
138 <p>
139 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
140 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
141 properly without additional tweaks).
142 </p>
143
144 </body>
145 </subsection>
146 <subsection>
147 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
152 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
156 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
157 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
158 General setup --->
159 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
160 </pre>
161
162 <p>
163 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
164 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
165 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
166 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
170 File systems ---&gt;
171 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
172 [*] /proc file system support
173 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175
176 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
177 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
178 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
179 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
180 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
181 </pre>
182
183 <p>
184 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
185 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
186 </p>
187
188 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
189 Device Drivers ---&gt;
190 Networking support ---&gt;
191 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
192 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
198 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
199 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
204 ethernet card.
205 </p>
206
207 <p>
208 Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled
209 kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is
210 needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
211 </p>
212
213 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
214 File Systems ---&gt;
215 [*] HFS Support
216 </pre>
217
218 <p>
219 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
220 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
221 that you do not use this feature.
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
225 Platform options ---&gt;
226 [ ] Preemptible Kernel
227 </pre>
228
229 <p>
230 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
231 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
232 framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
233 framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
237 Device Drivers ---&gt;
238 Graphics support ---&gt;
239 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
240 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
241 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
242 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
243 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
244 Console display driver support ---&gt;
245 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
246 </pre>
247
248 <note>
249 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
250 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
251 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
252 <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
253 </note>
254
255 <p>
256 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
257 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
258 </p>
259
260 </body>
261 </subsection>
262 <subsection id="compiling">
263 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
264 <body>
265
266 <p>
267 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
268 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
269 </p>
270
271 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
272 # <i>make all &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
273 </pre>
274
275 <p>
276 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
277 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
281 <comment>replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version</comment>
282 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
283 (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10</i>
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>
287 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
288 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
292 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8</i>
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
297 Modules</uri>.
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </subsection>
302 </section>
303 <section id="kernel_modules">
304 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
305 <subsection>
306 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
307 <body>
308
309 <p>
310 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
311 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
312 You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.
313 </p>
314
315 <p>
316 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
317 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
318 just compiled:
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
322 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <p>
326 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
327 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
328 name in it.
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
332 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
336 3c59x
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
341 your System</uri>.
342 </p>
343
344 </body>
345 </subsection>
346 </section>
347 <section id="genkernel">
348 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
349 <body>
350
351 <p>
352 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
353 script to configure your kernel for you.
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
358 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
359 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
360 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
361 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
362 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel
363 doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for
364 those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
372 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 <p>
376 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
377 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
381 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
382 </pre>
383
384 <p>
385 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --udev all</c>.
386 Be aware though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
387 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
388 </p>
389
390 <p>
391 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
392 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
393 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e>
394 the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably
395 want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
399 # <i>genkernel --udev all</i>
400 </pre>
401
402 <p>
403 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
404 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
405 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
406 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
407 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
408 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
409 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
410 boot arguments, these are required for a sucessful boot with genkernel.
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
414 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
419 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
420 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
421 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
425 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
426 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
427 </pre>
428
429 <p>
430 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
431 </p>
432
433 </body>
434 </section>
435
436 </sections>

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