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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.21 2005/08/06 18:58:39 josejx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.11</version>
12 <date>2005-08-09</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 First, select your timezone so that your system knows where it is located. Look
20 for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a symlink to
21 <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
22 </p>
23
24 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
25 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
26 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
27 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
28 </pre>
29
30 </body>
31 </section>
32 <section>
33 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 The base that all distributions are built upon is the Linux kernel. It is the
40 layer between the your programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
41 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
42 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
43 Guide</uri>.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 We suggest using either <c>vanilla-sources</c> or <c>gentoo-sources</c>
48 on PPC, which are both 2.6 kernels. The latter is available when you
49 perform a networkless installation. So let's continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing
50 the kernel sources:
51 </p>
52
53 <pre caption="Installing the kernel source">
54 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
55 </pre>
56
57 <note>
58 The suggested sources at the time of the 2005.1 release are
59 <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.12-r4</c> and <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.12.2</c>.
60 </note>
61
62 <p>
63 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. Here, we will assume
65 that the kernel source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.12-r4</c>:
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
69 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
70 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r4
71 </pre>
72
73 <p>
74 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
75 <c>linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r4</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
76 desired kernel sources:
77 </p>
78
79 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
80 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
81 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
82 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r4 linux</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 <p>
86 It is now time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
87 <c>genkernel</c> to build a generic kernel similar to the one used by the
88 Installation CD, or you can perform a manual configuration to best suit your
89 system.
90 </p>
91
92 <p>
93 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
94 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
95 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
96 genkernel</uri> instead.
97 </p>
98
99 </body>
100 </subsection>
101 </section>
102 <section id="manual">
103 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
104 <subsection>
105 <title>Introduction</title>
106 <body>
107
108 <p>
109 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
110 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true, after configuring a
111 couple of kernels you won't even remember it being that difficult ;)
112 </p>
113
114 <p>
115 Building a successful you must know what is in your system when
116 you start configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by
117 emerging pciutils <c>emerge pciutils</c> which contains <c>lspci</c>. You
118 can
119 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
120 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
121 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
122 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
123 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
124 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). Another place
125 to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the kernel
126 message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type <c>dmesg</c>
127 to see the kernel messages.
128 </p>
129
130 <p>
131 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
132 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
133 </p>
134
135 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
136 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
137 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
138 </pre>
139
140 <p>
141 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
142 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
143 properly without additional tweaks).
144 </p>
145
146 </body>
147 </subsection>
148 <subsection>
149 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
150 <body>
151
152 <p>
153 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
154 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
155 </p>
156
157 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
158 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
159 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
160 General setup --->
161 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
162 </pre>
163
164 <p>
165 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
166 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
167 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
168 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
169 </p>
170
171 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
172 File systems ---&gt;
173 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
174 [*] /proc file system support
175 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
176 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
177
178 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
179 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
180 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
181 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
182 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
183 </pre>
184
185 <p>
186 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
187 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
191 Device Drivers ---&gt;
192 Networking support ---&gt;
193 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
195 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
200 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
201 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
202 </p>
203
204 <p>
205 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
206 ethernet card.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
211 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
212 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
216 File Systems ---&gt;
217 [*] HFS Support
218 </pre>
219
220 <p>
221 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
222 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
223 that you do not use this feature.
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
227 Platform options ---&gt;
228 [ ] Preemptible Kernel
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you
233 do not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and
234 their dependencies in an initrd.
235 </p>
236
237 <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
238 Device Drivers ---&gt;
239 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
240 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
241 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
242 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
243 </pre>
244
245 <p>
246 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
247 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
248 dependencies in an initrd.
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
252 Device Drivers ---&gt;
253 USB support ---&gt;
254 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
255 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
256 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
257 </pre>
258
259 <p>
260 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
261 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
262 framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
263 framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
264 </p>
265
266 <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
267 Device Drivers ---&gt;
268 Graphics support ---&gt;
269 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
270 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
271 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
272 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
273 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
274 Console display driver support ---&gt;
275 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
276 </pre>
277
278 <note>
279 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
280 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
281 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
282 <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
283 </note>
284
285 <p>
286 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
287 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
288 </p>
289
290 </body>
291 </subsection>
292 <subsection id="compiling">
293 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
294 <body>
295
296 <p>
297 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
298 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
302 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
307 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
311 <comment>replace 2.6.12 with your kernel-version</comment>
312 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.12</i>
313 (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.12</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
318 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
322 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.12-gentoo-r4</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <p>
326 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
327 Modules</uri>.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </subsection>
332 </section>
333 <section id="kernel_modules">
334 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
335 <subsection>
336 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
337 <body>
338
339 <p>
340 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
341 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
342 You can add extra options to the modules too if needed.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
347 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
348 just compiled:
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
352 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
353 </pre>
354
355 <p>
356 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
357 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
358 name in it.
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
362 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
363 </pre>
364
365 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
366 3c59x
367 </pre>
368
369 <p>
370 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
371 your System</uri>.
372 </p>
373
374 </body>
375 </subsection>
376 </section>
377 <section id="genkernel">
378 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
383 script to configure your kernel for you.
384 </p>
385
386 <p>
387 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
388 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
389 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
390 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
391 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
392 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does.
393 Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an
394 ideal solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
395 kernels.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
403 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
408 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
412 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 <p>
416 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
417 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
418 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
419 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
420 </p>
421
422 <p>
423 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
424 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
425 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
426 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
427 quite a while to finish!
428 </p>
429
430 <p>
431 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
432 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
433 <c>genkernel --menuconfig --genzimage all</c> and add support for your
434 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
435 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as
436 well.
437 </p>
438
439 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
440 # <i>genkernel all</i>
441 </pre>
442
443 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
444 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
445 </pre>
446
447 <p>
448 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
449 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
450 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
451 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
452 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
453 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
454 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
455 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
459 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*</i>
460 </pre>
461
462 <p>
463 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
464 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
465 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
466 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
470 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
471 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
476 </p>
477
478 </body>
479 </section>
480
481 </sections>

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