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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.35 2005/08/12 08:51:50 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.13</version>
12 <date>2005-08-21</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make
21 a symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The base that all distributions are built upon is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the your programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 We suggest using either <c>vanilla-sources</c> or <c>gentoo-sources</c>
50 on PPC, which are both 2.6 kernels. The latter is available when you
51 perform a networkless installation. So let's continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing
52 the kernel sources:
53 </p>
54
55 <pre caption="Installing the kernel source">
56 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
57 </pre>
58
59 <note>
60 The suggested sources at the time of the 2005.1 release are
61 <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.12-r4</c> and <c>vanilla-sources-2.6.12.2</c>.
62 </note>
63
64 <p>
65 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
66 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. Here, we will assume
67 that the kernel source installed is <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.12-r4</c>:
68 </p>
69
70 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
71 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
72 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r4
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that
77 <c>linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r4</c> is merely an example) you should change it to the
78 desired kernel sources:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Changing the kernel source symlink">
82 # <i>rm /usr/src/linux</i>
83 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
84 # <i>ln -s linux-2.6.12-gentoo-r4 linux</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 <p>
88 It is now time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
89 <c>genkernel</c> to build a generic kernel similar to the one used by the
90 Installation CD, or you can perform a manual configuration to best suit your
91 system.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
96 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
97 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
98 genkernel</uri> instead.
99 </p>
100
101 </body>
102 </subsection>
103 </section>
104 <section id="manual">
105 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
106 <subsection>
107 <title>Introduction</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
112 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true, after configuring a
113 couple of kernels you won't even remember it being that difficult ;)
114 </p>
115
116 <p>
117 Building a successful you must know what is in your system when
118 you start configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by
119 emerging pciutils <c>emerge pciutils</c> which contains <c>lspci</c>. You
120 can
121 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
122 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
123 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
124 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
125 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
126 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). Another place
127 to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the kernel
128 message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type <c>dmesg</c>
129 to see the kernel messages.
130 </p>
131
132 <p>
133 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
134 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
135 </p>
136
137 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
138 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
139 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
140 </pre>
141
142 <p>
143 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
144 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
145 properly without additional tweaks).
146 </p>
147
148 </body>
149 </subsection>
150 <subsection>
151 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
152 <body>
153
154 <p>
155 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
156 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
160 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
161 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
162 General setup --->
163 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
164 </pre>
165
166 <p>
167 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
168 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
169 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
170 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Do <e>not</e> select the <c>/dev file system</c>.
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
174 File systems ---&gt;
175 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
176 [*] /proc file system support
177 [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
178 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
179
180 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
181 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
182 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
183 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
184 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
189 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
193 Device Drivers ---&gt;
194 Networking support ---&gt;
195 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
196 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
197 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
202 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
203 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
204 </p>
205
206 <p>
207 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
208 ethernet card.
209 </p>
210
211 <p>
212 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
213 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
214 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
215 </p>
216
217 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
218 File Systems ---&gt;
219 [*] HFS Support
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
224 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
225 that you do not use this feature.
226 </p>
227
228 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
229 Platform options ---&gt;
230 [ ] Preemptible Kernel
231 </pre>
232
233 <p>
234 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you
235 do not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and
236 their dependencies in an initrd.
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
240 Device Drivers ---&gt;
241 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
242 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
243 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
244 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
245 </pre>
246
247 <p>
248 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
249 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
250 dependencies in an initrd.
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
254 Device Drivers ---&gt;
255 USB support ---&gt;
256 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
257 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
258 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
259 </pre>
260
261 <p>
262 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
263 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
264 framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
265 framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
269 Device Drivers ---&gt;
270 Graphics support ---&gt;
271 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
272 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
273 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
274 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
275 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
276 Console display driver support ---&gt;
277 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
278 </pre>
279
280 <note>
281 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
282 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
283 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
284 <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
285 </note>
286
287 <p>
288 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
289 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
290 </p>
291
292 </body>
293 </subsection>
294 <subsection id="compiling">
295 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
296 <body>
297
298 <p>
299 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
300 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
304 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
305 </pre>
306
307 <p>
308 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
309 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
313 <comment>replace 2.6.12 with your kernel-version</comment>
314 (Apple/IBM) # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.12</i>
315 (Pegasos) # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.12</i>
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to
320 <path>/boot</path>, just in case :)
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Backing up your kernel configuration">
324 # <i>cp .config /boot/config-2.6.12-gentoo-r4</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 <p>
328 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
329 Modules</uri>.
330 </p>
331
332 </body>
333 </subsection>
334 </section>
335 <section id="kernel_modules">
336 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
337 <subsection>
338 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>
342 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
343 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
344 You can add extra options to the modules too if needed.
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
349 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
350 just compiled:
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
354 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
355 </pre>
356
357 <p>
358 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
359 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
360 name in it.
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
364 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
365 </pre>
366
367 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
368 3c59x
369 </pre>
370
371 <p>
372 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
373 your System</uri>.
374 </p>
375
376 </body>
377 </subsection>
378 </section>
379 <section id="genkernel">
380 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
385 script to configure your kernel for you.
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
390 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
391 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
392 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
393 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
394 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does.
395 Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an
396 ideal solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
397 kernels.
398 </p>
399
400 <p>
401 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
405 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>
409 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
410 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
414 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
419 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
420 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
421 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
422 </p>
423
424 <p>
425 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
426 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
427 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
428 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
429 quite a while to finish!
430 </p>
431
432 <p>
433 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
434 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
435 <c>genkernel --menuconfig --genzimage all</c> and add support for your
436 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
437 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as
438 well.
439 </p>
440
441 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
442 # <i>genkernel all</i>
443 </pre>
444
445 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
446 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
447 </pre>
448
449 <p>
450 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
451 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
452 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
453 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
454 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
455 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
456 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
457 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
461 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
466 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
467 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
468 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
472 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
473 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
474 </pre>
475
476 <p>
477 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
478 </p>
479
480 </body>
481 </section>
482
483 </sections>

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