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Fixed defconfig for 2.6.16 and newer kernels.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.39 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.17</version>
12 <date>2006-04-30</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The base that all distributions are built upon is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the your programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 We suggest using either <c>vanilla-sources</c> or <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC,
50 which are both 2.6 kernels. The latter is available when you perform a
51 networkless installation. So let's continue with <c>emerge</c>'ing the kernel
52 sources. The <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or
53 other dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a
54 new install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
55 symlink.
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing the kernel source">
59 # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge gentoo-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
65 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.15</c>. Your version
66 may be different, so keep this in mind.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
70 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
71 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-2.6.15-gentoo
72 </pre>
73
74 <p>
75 It is now time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
76 <c>genkernel</c> to build a generic kernel similar to the one used by the
77 Installation CD, or you can perform a manual configuration to best suit your
78 system.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
83 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
84 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
85 genkernel</uri> instead.
86 </p>
87
88 </body>
89 </subsection>
90 </section>
91 <section id="manual">
92 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
93 <subsection>
94 <title>Introduction</title>
95 <body>
96
97 <p>
98 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
99 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true, after configuring a
100 couple of kernels you won't even remember it being that difficult ;)
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
105 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
106 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
107 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
108 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
109 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
110 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
111 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
112 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable). Another place
113 to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the kernel
114 message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type <c>dmesg</c>
115 to see the kernel messages.
116 </p>
117
118 <p>
119 Now go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel. It
120 is recommended that you add the default settings to your configuration by first
121 running <c>make defconfig</c> (for 2.6.15 and earlier kernels) or
122 <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c> (for 2.6.16 and later kernels). After the default
123 configuration has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> which will fire
124 up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
125 </p>
126
127 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
128 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
129 <comment>Substitute defconfig for pmac32_defconfig below if using a 2.6.15 or earlier kernel</comment>
130 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
131 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132 </pre>
133
134 <p>
135 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137 properly without additional tweaks).
138 </p>
139
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
148 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
149 </p>
150
151 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
152 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
153 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
154 General setup --->
155 [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
160 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
161 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>/proc file system</c> and
162 <c>Virtual memory</c>.
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
166 File systems ---&gt;
167 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
168 [*] /proc file system support
169 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
170
171 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
172 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
173 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
174 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
175 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
176 </pre>
177
178 <p>
179 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
180 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
184 Device Drivers ---&gt;
185 Networking support ---&gt;
186 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
187 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
188 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
189 </pre>
190
191 <p>
192 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
193 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by
194 <c>rp-pppoe</c> when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
195 </p>
196
197 <p>
198 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
199 ethernet card.
200 </p>
201
202 <p>
203 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
204 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
205 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
209 File Systems ---&gt;
210 [*] HFS Support
211 </pre>
212
213 <p>
214 At this time, kernel preemption is still unstable on PPC and may cause
215 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
216 that you do not use this feature.
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
220 Platform options ---&gt;
221 [ ] Preemptible Kernel
222 </pre>
223
224 <p>
225 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you
226 do not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and
227 their dependencies in an initrd.
228 </p>
229
230 <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
231 Device Drivers ---&gt;
232 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
233 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
234 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
235 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
236 </pre>
237
238 <p>
239 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
240 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
241 dependencies in an initrd.
242 </p>
243
244 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
245 Device Drivers ---&gt;
246 USB support ---&gt;
247 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
248 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
249 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
254 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
255 framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
256 framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Chosing a Framebuffer Driver">
260 Device Drivers ---&gt;
261 Graphics support ---&gt;
262 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
263 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
264 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
265 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
266 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
267 Console display driver support ---&gt;
268 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
269 </pre>
270
271 <note>
272 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
273 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
274 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot such as
275 <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
276 </note>
277
278 <p>
279 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
280 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
281 </p>
282
283 </body>
284 </subsection>
285 <subsection id="compiling">
286 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
291 the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:
292 </p>
293
294 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
295 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
296 </pre>
297
298 <p>
299 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
300 <path>/boot</path> (be sure that it is mounted properly on Pegasos computers).
301 If you are using BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
302 </p>
303
304 <p>
305 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
306 bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
307 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you
308 are using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed
309 kernel called zImage.chrp which can be found in
310 <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/ppc/boot/images</path>.
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
314 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
315 <comment>replace &lt;kernel-version&gt; with your kernel version</comment>
316 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
317 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
318 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
319 # <i>cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
320 </pre>
321
322 <p>
323 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
324 Modules</uri>.
325 </p>
326
327 </body>
328 </subsection>
329 </section>
330 <section id="kernel_modules">
331 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
332 <subsection>
333 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
334 <body>
335
336 <p>
337 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
338 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
339 You can add extra options to the modules too if needed.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
344 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
345 just compiled:
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
349 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
354 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module
355 name in it.
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
359 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
360 </pre>
361
362 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
363 3c59x
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
368 your System</uri>.
369 </p>
370
371 </body>
372 </subsection>
373 </section>
374 <section id="genkernel">
375 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
376 <body>
377
378 <p>
379 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
380 script to configure your kernel for you.
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
385 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
386 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
387 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
388 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
389 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does.
390 Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an
391 ideal solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
392 kernels.
393 </p>
394
395 <p>
396 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
397 </p>
398
399 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
400 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
401 </pre>
402
403 <p>
404 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
405 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
409 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
410 </pre>
411
412 <p>
413 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
414 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
415 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
416 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
417 </p>
418
419 <p>
420 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
421 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
422 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
423 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
424 quite a while to finish!
425 </p>
426
427 <p>
428 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
429 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
430 <c>genkernel --menuconfig --genzimage all</c> and add support for your
431 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
432 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as
433 well.
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
437 # <i>genkernel all</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
441 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 <p>
445 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
446 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
447 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
448 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
449 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
450 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
451 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
452 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
453 </p>
454
455 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
456 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
457 </pre>
458
459 <p>
460 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the
461 Installation CD -- let's emerge <c>coldplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects
462 hardware that is needed to boot your system, <c>coldplug</c> autodetects
463 everything else. To emerge and enable <c>coldplug</c>, type the following:
464 </p>
465
466 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling coldplug">
467 # <i>emerge coldplug</i>
468 # <i>rc-update add coldplug boot</i>
469 </pre>
470
471 <p>
472 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
473 </p>
474
475 </body>
476 </section>
477
478 </sections>

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