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Sun May 20 04:16:25 2007 UTC (6 years, 10 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.50: +14 -3 lines
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for safety's sake, needed to move the conf.d/clock TIMEZONE edit to immediately before compiling a kernel. users still run into the warning message if it's left at the end, before rebooting. fixes http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-560322.html and other reports.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.50 2007/05/17 16:56:43 rane Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.2</version>
12 <date>2007-05-19</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 <p>
34 Next, define the timezone you just used in <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> so
35 that further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
36 <path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically.
37 </p>
38
39 <pre caption="Setting the TIMEZONE variable in /etc/conf.d/clock">
40 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
41 TIMEZONE="GMT"
42 </pre>
43
44 </body>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
54 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
55 users several possible kernels to choose from. A full listing with description
56 is available at the
57 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel Guide</uri>.
58 </p>
59
60 <p>
61 We suggest using <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC, which is a recent 2.6 kernel.
62 </p>
63
64 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
65 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
66 </pre>
67
68 <p>
69 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
70 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
71 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval
72 id="kernel-version"/></c>. Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
76 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
77 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
82 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
83 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
84 a more efficient configuration.
85 </p>
86
87 <p>
88 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
89 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
90 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
91 genkernel</uri> instead.
92 </p>
93
94 </body>
95 </subsection>
96 </section>
97 <section id="manual">
98 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
99 <subsection>
100 <title>Introduction</title>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
105 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
106 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
111 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
112 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains the program
113 <c>lspci</c>. You will now be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted
114 environment. You may safely ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (such as pcilib:
115 cannot open /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively,
116 you can run <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results
117 are the same. You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the
118 Installation CD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
119 Another place to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the
120 kernel message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type
121 <c>dmesg</c> to see these kernel messages.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
126 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
127 by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
128 has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
129 configuration menu.
130 </p>
131
132 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
133 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
134 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
135 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
136 </pre>
137
138 <p>
139 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
140 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
141 properly without additional tweaks).
142 </p>
143
144 </body>
145 </subsection>
146 <subsection>
147 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
152 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
156 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
157 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
158 </pre>
159
160 <p>
161 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
162 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
163 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
164 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
165 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
166 an Apple computer.
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
170 File systems ---&gt;
171 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
172 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
173 [*] /proc file system support
174 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
175 Partition Types ---&gt;
176 [*] Amiga partition table support
177 [*] Macintosh partition map support
178
179 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
180 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
181 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
182 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
183 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
184 </pre>
185
186 <p>
187 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
188 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
189 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
193 File Systems ---&gt;
194 Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
195 &lt;*&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
196 &lt;*&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
201 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
202 </p>
203
204 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
205 Device Drivers ---&gt;
206 Network device support ---&gt;
207 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
208 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
209 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
210 </pre>
211
212 <p>
213 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
214 over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
215 perform kernel mode PPPoE.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
220 newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
221 the BMAC driver.
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
225 Device Drivers ---&gt;
226 Network device support ---&gt;
227 Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
228 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
229 &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
230 &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
231 &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
232 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
233 </pre>
234
235 <p>
236 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
237 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
238 that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
239 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
243 Kernel options ---&gt;
244 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
245 Preemption Model
246 (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
247 (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
248 </pre>
249
250 <p>
251 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
252 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
253 dependencies in an initrd.
254 </p>
255
256 <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
257 Device Drivers ---&gt;
258 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
259 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
260 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
261 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
266 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
267 dependencies in an initrd.
268 </p>
269
270 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
271 Device Drivers ---&gt;
272 USB support ---&gt;
273 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
274 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
275 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
276 </pre>
277
278 <p>
279 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
280 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the OpenFirmware
281 framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select the
282 framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
283 </p>
284
285 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
286 Device Drivers ---&gt;
287 Graphics support ---&gt;
288 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
289 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
290 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
291 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
292 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
293 Console display driver support ---&gt;
294 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
295 </pre>
296
297 <note>
298 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
299 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
300 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video
301 line such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
302 </note>
303
304 <p>
305 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
306 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
307 </p>
308
309 </body>
310 </subsection>
311 <subsection id="compiling">
312 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
313 <body>
314
315 <p>
316 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
317 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
321 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
326 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
327 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
328 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
329 </p>
330
331 <p>
332 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
333 bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
334 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
335 using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
336 called zImage which can be found in
337 <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
341 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
342 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
343 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
344 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
345 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
346 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
347 </pre>
348
349 <p>
350 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
351 Modules</uri>.
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </subsection>
356 </section>
357 <section id="kernel_modules">
358 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
359 <subsection>
360 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
365 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
366 the modules if required.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
371 forget to substitute "&lt;kernel version&gt;" with the version of the kernel you
372 just compiled:
373 </p>
374
375 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
376 # <i>find /lib/modules/&lt;kernel version&gt;/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
377 </pre>
378
379 <p>
380 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x</c> module, edit the
381 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and add the module to it, one module on a line.
382 </p>
383
384 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
385 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
386 </pre>
387
388 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
389 3c59x
390 </pre>
391
392 <p>
393 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
394 your System</uri>.
395 </p>
396
397 </body>
398 </subsection>
399 </section>
400 <section id="genkernel">
401 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
406 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
407 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
408 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
409 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
410 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
411 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
412 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
413 kernels.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
421 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
426 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
430 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
431 </pre>
432
433 <p>
434 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
435 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
436 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
437 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
438 </p>
439
440 <p>
441 Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
442 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
443 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
444 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
445 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
446 </p>
447
448 <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
449 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
450 <comment>Remove this line</comment>
451 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>
455 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
456 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
457 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
458 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
459 quite a while to finish!
460 </p>
461
462 <p>
463 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
464 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
465 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
466 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
467 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
468 well.
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
472 # <i>genkernel all</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
476 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
477 </pre>
478
479 <p>
480 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
481 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
482 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
483 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
484 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
485 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
486 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
487 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
488 </p>
489
490 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
491 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
492 # <i>ls /boot/kernel-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/> /boot/initramfs-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/></i>
493 </pre>
494
495 <p>
496 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
497 </p>
498
499 </body>
500 </section>
501 </sections>

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