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use a simple modprobe -l command, bug 187000

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.54 2007/07/13 08:40:58 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.3</version>
12 <date>2007-07-29</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
26
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 users several possible kernels to choose from. A full listing with description
45 is available at the
46 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel Guide</uri>.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 We suggest using <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC, which is a recent 2.6 kernel.
51 </p>
52
53 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
54 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
55 </pre>
56
57 <p>
58 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
59 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
60 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval
61 id="kernel-version"/></c>. Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
62 </p>
63
64 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
65 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
66 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/>
67 </pre>
68
69 <p>
70 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
71 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
72 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
73 a more efficient configuration.
74 </p>
75
76 <p>
77 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
78 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
79 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
80 genkernel</uri> instead.
81 </p>
82
83 </body>
84 </subsection>
85 </section>
86 <section id="manual">
87 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
88 <subsection>
89 <title>Introduction</title>
90 <body>
91
92 <p>
93 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
94 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
95 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
100 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
101 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains the program
102 <c>lspci</c>. You will now be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted
103 environment. You may safely ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (such as pcilib:
104 cannot open /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively,
105 you can run <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results
106 are the same. You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the
107 Installation CD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
108 Another place to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the
109 kernel message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type
110 <c>dmesg</c> to see these kernel messages.
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
115 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
116 by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
117 has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
118 configuration menu.
119 </p>
120
121 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
122 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
123 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
124 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
129 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
130 properly without additional tweaks).
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection>
136 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <p>
140 First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers.
141 You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:
142 </p>
143
144 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers">
145 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
146 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
147 </pre>
148
149 <p>
150 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
151 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
152 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
153 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
154 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
155 an Apple computer.
156 </p>
157
158 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
159 File systems ---&gt;
160 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
161 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
162 [*] /proc file system support
163 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
164 Partition Types ---&gt;
165 [*] Advanced partition support
166 [*] Amiga partition table support
167 [*] Macintosh partition map support
168
169 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
170 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
171 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
172 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
173 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
174 </pre>
175
176 <p>
177 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
178 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
179 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
180 </p>
181
182 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
183 File Systems ---&gt;
184 Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
185 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
186 &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
187 </pre>
188
189 <p>
190 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
191 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
195 Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 Network device support ---&gt;
197 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
198 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
199 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
200 </pre>
201
202 <p>
203 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
204 over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
205 perform kernel mode PPPoE.
206 </p>
207
208 <p>
209 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
210 newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
211 the BMAC driver.
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
215 Device Drivers ---&gt;
216 Network device support ---&gt;
217 Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
218 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
219 &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
220 &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
221 &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
222 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
223 </pre>
224
225 <p>
226 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
227 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
228 that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
229 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
230 </p>
231
232 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
233 Kernel options ---&gt;
234 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
235 Preemption Model
236 (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
237 (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
238 </pre>
239
240 <p>
241 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
242 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
243 dependencies in an initrd.
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
247 Device Drivers ---&gt;
248 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
249 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
250 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
251 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
252 </pre>
253
254 <p>
255 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
256 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
257 dependencies in an initrd.
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
261 Device Drivers ---&gt;
262 USB support ---&gt;
263 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
264 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
265 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
270 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
271 Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
272 the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
273 </p>
274
275 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
276 Device Drivers ---&gt;
277 Graphics support ---&gt;
278 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
279 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
280 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
281 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
282 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
283 Console display driver support ---&gt;
284 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
285 </pre>
286
287 <note>
288 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
289 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
290 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video
291 line such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
292 </note>
293
294 <p>
295 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
296 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
297 </p>
298
299 </body>
300 </subsection>
301 <subsection id="compiling">
302 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
303 <body>
304
305 <p>
306 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
307 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
311 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
316 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
317 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
318 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
323 bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
324 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
325 using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
326 called zImage which can be found in
327 <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
331 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
332 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
333 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
334 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
335 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
336 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/&lt;kernel-version&gt;</i>
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Installing Separate Kernel
341 Modules</uri>.
342 </p>
343
344 </body>
345 </subsection>
346 </section>
347 <section id="kernel_modules">
348 <title>Installing Separate Kernel Modules</title>
349 <subsection>
350 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
355 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
356 the modules if required.
357 </p>
358
359 <p>
360 To view all available modules, run the following command:
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
364 # <i>modprobe -l</i>
365 </pre>
366
367 <p>
368 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x</c> module, edit the
369 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and add the module to it, one module on a line.
370 </p>
371
372 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
373 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
377 3c59x
378 </pre>
379
380 <p>
381 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
382 your System</uri>.
383 </p>
384
385 </body>
386 </subsection>
387 </section>
388 <section id="genkernel">
389 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
390 <body>
391
392 <p>
393 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
394 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
395 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
396 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
397 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
398 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
399 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
400 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
401 kernels.
402 </p>
403
404 <p>
405 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
409 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
410 </pre>
411
412 <p>
413 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
414 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
418 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
423 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
424 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
425 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
426 </p>
427
428 <p>
429 Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
430 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
431 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
432 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
433 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
437 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
438 <comment>Remove this line</comment>
439 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
440 </pre>
441
442 <p>
443 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
444 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
445 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
446 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
447 quite a while to finish!
448 </p>
449
450 <p>
451 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
452 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
453 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
454 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
455 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
456 well.
457 </p>
458
459 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
460 # <i>genkernel all</i>
461 </pre>
462
463 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
464 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>
468 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
469 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
470 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
471 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
472 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
473 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
474 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
475 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
479 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
480 # <i>ls /boot/kernel-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/> /boot/initramfs-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/></i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring your System</uri>.
485 </p>
486
487 </body>
488 </section>
489 </sections>

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