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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.16 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.15 2004/07/03 19:01:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The PPC Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39     swap)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     For the <e>PowerPC architecture</e>, you can install Gentoo/PPC on machines
43     having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4
44     or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the iBook, the PowerBook,
45 swift 1.7 Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos I and II... We also provide limited
46 swift 1.13 support for oldworld systems, IBM (rs/6000, iSeries, pSeries, ...) and Amiga
47 swift 1.7 systems. Be sure to read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml">Gentoo
48     PPC FAQ</uri> too before you begin.
49 swift 1.1 </li>
50     </ul>
51    
52     </body>
53     </subsection>
54     </section>
55     <section>
56     <title>Make your Choice</title>
57     <subsection>
58     <title>Introduction</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
63     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
64     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
65     Gentoo base system.
66     </p>
67    
68     <p>
69     The installation media we will describe are:
70     </p>
71    
72     <ul>
73     <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
74     <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
75     </ul>
76    
77     <p>
78     Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
79     the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
80     make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
81     three-stage installation.
82     </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </subsection>
86     <subsection>
87     <title>The Three Stages</title>
88     <body>
89    
90     <p>
91     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
92     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
93     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
94     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
95     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
96     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
97     been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
98     Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
99     packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
100     </p>
101    
102     <p>
103     Now what stage do you have to choose?
104     </p>
105    
106     <p>
107     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
108     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
109     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
110     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
111     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
112     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
113     </p>
114    
115 swift 1.10 <p>
116     A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
117     Internet connection.
118     </p>
119    
120 swift 1.1 <table>
121     <tr>
122     <th>Stage1</th>
123     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124     </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <th>+</th>
127     <ti>
128     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
129     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
130     </ti>
131     </tr>
132     <tr>
133     <th>+</th>
134     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
135     </tr>
136     <tr>
137     <th>+</th>
138     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
139     </tr>
140     <tr>
141     <th>-</th>
142     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
143     </tr>
144     <tr>
145     <th>-</th>
146     <ti>
147     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
148     </ti>
149     </tr>
150 swift 1.10 <tr>
151     <th>-</th>
152     <ti>
153     Not suitable for networkless installations
154     </ti>
155     </tr>
156 swift 1.1 </table>
157    
158     <p>
159     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
160     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
161     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
162     </p>
163    
164 swift 1.10 <p>
165     A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
166     Internet connection.
167     </p>
168    
169 swift 1.1 <table>
170     <tr>
171     <th>Stage2</th>
172     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
173     </tr>
174     <tr>
175     <th>+</th>
176     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
177     </tr>
178     <tr>
179     <th>+</th>
180     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
181     </tr>
182     <tr>
183     <th>+</th>
184     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
185     </tr>
186     <tr>
187     <th>-</th>
188     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
189     </tr>
190     <tr>
191     <th>-</th>
192     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
193     </tr>
194     <tr>
195     <th>-</th>
196     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
197     </tr>
198 swift 1.10 <tr>
199     <th>-</th>
200     <ti>
201     Not suitable for networkless installations
202     </ti>
203     </tr>
204 swift 1.1 </table>
205    
206     <p>
207     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
208     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
209     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
210     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
211     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
212 swift 1.9 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
213 swift 1.1 </p>
214    
215     <table>
216     <tr>
217     <th>Stage3</th>
218     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
219     </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th>+</th>
222     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
223     </tr>
224     <tr>
225 swift 1.10 <th>+</th>
226     <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
227     </tr>
228     <tr>
229 swift 1.1 <th>-</th>
230     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
231     </tr>
232     <tr>
233     <th>-</th>
234     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
235     </tr>
236     </table>
237    
238     <p>
239     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
240     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
241     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
242     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
243     with the new optimization settings.
244     </p>
245    
246     <p>
247     Now take a look at the available installation media.
248     </p>
249    
250     </body>
251     </subsection>
252     <subsection>
253     <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
254     <body>
255    
256     <p>
257     The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
258     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
259     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
260     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
261     </p>
262    
263     <p>
264     All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
265     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
266     LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
267     Gentoo without a working network configuration.
268     </p>
269    
270     <p>
271     Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
272     </p>
273    
274     </body>
275     </subsection>
276     <subsection>
277     <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
278     <body>
279    
280     <p>
281     This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
282     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
283     does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
284     source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this
285     LiveCD can be found in the <path>universal</path> subdirectory and is called
286 swift 1.7 <c>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
287 swift 1.1 </p>
288    
289     <table>
290     <tr>
291     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
292     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
293     </tr>
294     <tr>
295     <th>+</th>
296     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
297     </tr>
298     <tr>
299     <th>+</th>
300     <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
301     </tr>
302     <tr>
303     <th>+</th>
304     <ti>
305     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
306     net
307     </ti>
308     </tr>
309     <tr>
310     <th>-</th>
311     <ti>
312     Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
313     suitable for networkless installation
314     </ti>
315     </tr>
316     </table>
317    
318     </body>
319     </subsection>
320     <subsection>
321     <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
322     <body>
323    
324     <p>
325     Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
326     networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
327     individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called
328 swift 1.7 <c>install-ppc-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
329 swift 1.1 <path>universal</path> subdirectory.
330     </p>
331    
332     <p>
333 swift 1.7 If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see
334     that we provide <e>Gentoo Package CDs</e>. This CD (which isn't
335 swift 1.1 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
336     after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
337     need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
338     etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
339     CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is
340 swift 1.7 called <c>packages-g4-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the appropriate
341 swift 1.1 subdirectory (<path>g4/</path>).
342     </p>
343    
344 swift 1.11 <p>
345     You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
346     installation.
347     </p>
348    
349 swift 1.1 <table>
350     <tr>
351     <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
352     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
353     </tr>
354     <tr>
355     <th>+</th>
356     <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
357     </tr>
358     <tr>
359     <th>+</th>
360     <ti>
361     Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
362     </ti>
363     </tr>
364     <tr>
365     <th>+</th>
366     <ti>
367     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
368     connection.
369     </ti>
370     </tr>
371     <tr>
372     <th>-</th>
373     <ti>Huge download</ti>
374     </tr>
375     </table>
376    
377     </body>
378     </subsection>
379     </section>
380     <section>
381     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
382     <subsection>
383     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
384     <body>
385    
386     <p>
387     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
388     wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
389     LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
390     find them?
391     </p>
392    
393     <p>
394     Visit one of our <uri
395     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
396 swift 1.7 <path>releases/ppc/2004.1/livecd/universal</path>, which is
397 swift 1.1 the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that
398     directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
399     which you can write on a CD-R.
400     </p>
401    
402     <p>
403     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
404     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
405 swift 1.7 <path>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
406 swift 1.1 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
407 neysx 1.16 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
408 swift 1.1 </p>
409    
410 swift 1.15 <!--
411 swift 1.1 <p>
412 swift 1.12 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
413     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
414     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
415     </p>
416    
417     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
418 swift 1.15 $ <i>gpg - -keyserver pgp.mit.edu - -recv-keys 19462D47</i>
419 swift 1.12 </pre>
420    
421     <p>
422     Now verify the signature:
423     </p>
424    
425     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
426 swift 1.15 $ <i>gpg - -verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
427 swift 1.12 <comment>(If everything goes well, you should see something like this:)</comment>
428     gpg: Signature made Mon Apr 19 18:54:40 2004 EDT using DSA key ID 19462D47
429     gpg: Good signature from "John Davis (Gentoo Linux Developer) &lt;zhen@gentoo.org&gt;"
430     gpg: aka "Gentoo Linux Release Engineering &lt;releng@gentoo.org&gt;"
431     </pre>
432 swift 1.15 -->
433 swift 1.12
434     <p>
435 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
436 swift 1.14 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
437     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
438     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
439 swift 1.1 </p>
440    
441     <ul>
442     <li>
443     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
444     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
445     by the path to the ISO file :)
446     </li>
447     <li>
448 bennyc 1.6 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
449     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
450 swift 1.3 <c>Start</c>.
451     </li>
452 swift 1.1 </ul>
453    
454     </body>
455     </subsection>
456 swift 1.7 </section>
457     <section>
458     <title>Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)</title>
459 swift 1.1 <subsection>
460 swift 1.7 <title>Default: Apple/IBM</title>
461 swift 1.1 <body>
462    
463     <p>
464     Place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the 'C' key at
465     bootup (or run an OldWorld bootloader like BootX or quik). You will be greeted
466     by a friendly welcome message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the
467     screen.
468     </p>
469    
470     <p>
471     At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use.
472 swift 1.7 We provide <c>G3</c>, <c>G3-SMP</c>, <c>G4</c>, <c>G4-SMP</c>, <c>G5</c>,
473     <c>G5-SMP</c> and <c>G</c>. The various <c>-SMP</c> kernels are needed if your
474     system has multiple CPUs.
475 swift 1.1 </p>
476    
477     <p>
478     You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
479     table lists the available boot options you can add:
480     </p>
481    
482     <table>
483     <tr>
484     <th>Boot Option</th>
485     <th>Description</th>
486     </tr>
487     <tr>
488     <ti><c>video</c></ti>
489     <ti>
490     This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
491     <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>, <c>aty128</c> or
492     <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate
493     you want to use. For instance <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75</c>. If you are
494     uncertain what to choose, <c>ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
495     </ti>
496     </tr>
497     <tr>
498 pylon 1.2 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
499 swift 1.1 <ti>
500     Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17'')
501     </ti>
502     </tr>
503     <tr>
504     <ti><c>debug</c></ti>
505     <ti>
506     Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
507     the LiveCD
508     </ti>
509     </tr>
510 swift 1.7 <tr>
511     <ti><c>sleep=X</c></ti>
512     <ti>
513     Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
514     CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
515     </ti>
516     </tr>
517     <tr>
518     <ti><c>bootfrom=X</c></ti>
519     <ti>
520     Boot from a different device
521     </ti>
522     </tr>
523 swift 1.1 </table>
524    
525     <p>
526     At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
527 swift 1.7 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
528     Booted...</uri>.
529 swift 1.1 </p>
530    
531 swift 1.7 </body>
532     </subsection>
533     <subsection>
534     <title>Alternative: Pegasos</title>
535     <body>
536    
537 swift 1.1 <p>
538 swift 1.7 On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
539 swift 1.8 <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop
540     cdroot</c>. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the
541     command-line. For instance <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0
542     init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M</c>.
543 swift 1.1 </p>
544    
545 swift 1.7 </body>
546     </subsection>
547     <subsection id="booted">
548     <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
549     <body>
550 swift 1.1
551     <p>
552 swift 1.7 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
553     switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
554     back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
555 swift 1.1 </p>
556    
557     <p>
558     If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
559     <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
560     keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
561     </p>
562    
563     <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
564     <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
565     on the LiveCD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the LiveCD kernel)</comment>
566     # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
567     </pre>
568    
569     <p>
570     Now load the keymap of your choice:
571     </p>
572    
573     <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
574 swift 1.7 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
575 swift 1.1 </pre>
576    
577     <p>
578     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
579     </p>
580    
581     </body>
582     </subsection>
583     <subsection id="hardware">
584     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
585     <body>
586    
587     <p>
588     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
589     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
590     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
591     SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
592     modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
593     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
594     </p>
595    
596     <p>
597     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
598     certain kinds of network interfaces):
599     </p>
600    
601     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
602     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
603     </pre>
604    
605     </body>
606     </subsection>
607     <subsection>
608     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
609     <body>
610    
611     <p>
612     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
613     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
614     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
615     more precise impression):
616     </p>
617    
618     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
619     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
620     </pre>
621    
622     <p>
623     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
624     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
625     disk):
626     </p>
627    
628     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
629     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
630     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
631     </pre>
632    
633     </body>
634     </subsection>
635     <subsection>
636     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
637     <body>
638    
639     <p>
640     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
641     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
642     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
643     the root password.
644     </p>
645    
646     <p>
647     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
648     </p>
649    
650     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
651     # <i>passwd</i>
652     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
653     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
654     </pre>
655    
656     <p>
657 swift 1.5 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
658 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
659     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
660     </p>
661    
662     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
663     # <i>useradd john</i>
664     # <i>passwd john</i>
665     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
666     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
667     </pre>
668    
669     <p>
670     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
671     <c>su</c>:
672     </p>
673    
674     <pre caption="Changing user id">
675     # <i>su john -</i>
676     </pre>
677    
678     </body>
679     </subsection>
680     <subsection>
681     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
682     <body>
683    
684     <p>
685     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
686     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
687     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
688     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
689     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
690     </p>
691    
692     <p>
693     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
694     </p>
695    
696     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
697     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
698     </pre>
699    
700     <p>
701     To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
702     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
703     </p>
704    
705     </body>
706     </subsection>
707     </section>
708     </sections>

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