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Update on Pegasos installation instructions thanks to David Holm (dholm@gentoo.org)

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.8 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.7 2004/04/28 07:52:30 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The PPC Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39     swap)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     For the <e>PowerPC architecture</e>, you can install Gentoo/PPC on machines
43     having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4
44     or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the iBook, the PowerBook,
45 swift 1.7 Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos I and II... We also provide limited
46     support for oldworld systems, IBM (rs/6000, iSeries, zSeries, ...) and Amiga
47     systems. Be sure to read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml">Gentoo
48     PPC FAQ</uri> too before you begin.
49 swift 1.1 </li>
50     </ul>
51    
52     </body>
53     </subsection>
54     </section>
55     <section>
56     <title>Make your Choice</title>
57     <subsection>
58     <title>Introduction</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
63     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
64     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
65     Gentoo base system.
66     </p>
67    
68     <p>
69     The installation media we will describe are:
70     </p>
71    
72     <ul>
73     <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
74     <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
75     </ul>
76    
77     <p>
78     Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
79     the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
80     make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
81     three-stage installation.
82     </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </subsection>
86     <subsection>
87     <title>The Three Stages</title>
88     <body>
89    
90     <p>
91     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
92     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
93     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
94     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
95     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
96     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
97     been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
98     Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
99     packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
100     </p>
101    
102     <p>
103     Now what stage do you have to choose?
104     </p>
105    
106     <p>
107     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
108     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
109     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
110     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
111     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
112     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
113     </p>
114    
115     <table>
116     <tr>
117     <th>Stage1</th>
118     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
119     </tr>
120     <tr>
121     <th>+</th>
122     <ti>
123     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
124     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
125     </ti>
126     </tr>
127     <tr>
128     <th>+</th>
129     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
130     </tr>
131     <tr>
132     <th>+</th>
133     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
134     </tr>
135     <tr>
136     <th>-</th>
137     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
138     </tr>
139     <tr>
140     <th>-</th>
141     <ti>
142     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
143     </ti>
144     </tr>
145     </table>
146    
147     <p>
148     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
149     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
150     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
151     </p>
152    
153     <table>
154     <tr>
155     <th>Stage2</th>
156     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
157     </tr>
158     <tr>
159     <th>+</th>
160     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
161     </tr>
162     <tr>
163     <th>+</th>
164     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
165     </tr>
166     <tr>
167     <th>+</th>
168     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
169     </tr>
170     <tr>
171     <th>-</th>
172     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
173     </tr>
174     <tr>
175     <th>-</th>
176     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
177     </tr>
178     <tr>
179     <th>-</th>
180     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
181     </tr>
182     </table>
183    
184     <p>
185     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
186     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
187     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
188     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
189     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
190     prebuilt packages.
191     </p>
192    
193     <table>
194     <tr>
195     <th>Stage3</th>
196     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
197     </tr>
198     <tr>
199     <th>+</th>
200     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
201     </tr>
202     <tr>
203     <th>-</th>
204     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
205     </tr>
206     <tr>
207     <th>-</th>
208     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
209     </tr>
210     </table>
211    
212     <p>
213     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
214     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
215     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
216     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
217     with the new optimization settings.
218     </p>
219    
220     <p>
221     Now take a look at the available installation media.
222     </p>
223    
224     </body>
225     </subsection>
226     <subsection>
227     <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>
231     The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
232     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
233     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
234     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
235     </p>
236    
237     <p>
238     All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
239     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
240     LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
241     Gentoo without a working network configuration.
242     </p>
243    
244     <p>
245     Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
246     </p>
247    
248     </body>
249     </subsection>
250     <subsection>
251     <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
252     <body>
253    
254     <p>
255     This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
256     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
257     does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
258     source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this
259     LiveCD can be found in the <path>universal</path> subdirectory and is called
260 swift 1.7 <c>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
261 swift 1.1 </p>
262    
263     <table>
264     <tr>
265     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
266     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
267     </tr>
268     <tr>
269     <th>+</th>
270     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
271     </tr>
272     <tr>
273     <th>+</th>
274     <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
275     </tr>
276     <tr>
277     <th>+</th>
278     <ti>
279     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
280     net
281     </ti>
282     </tr>
283     <tr>
284     <th>-</th>
285     <ti>
286     Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
287     suitable for networkless installation
288     </ti>
289     </tr>
290     </table>
291    
292     </body>
293     </subsection>
294     <subsection>
295     <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
296     <body>
297    
298     <p>
299     Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
300     networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
301     individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called
302 swift 1.7 <c>install-ppc-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
303 swift 1.1 <path>universal</path> subdirectory.
304     </p>
305    
306     <p>
307 swift 1.7 If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see
308     that we provide <e>Gentoo Package CDs</e>. This CD (which isn't
309 swift 1.1 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
310     after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
311     need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
312     etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
313     CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is
314 swift 1.7 called <c>packages-g4-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the appropriate
315 swift 1.1 subdirectory (<path>g4/</path>).
316     </p>
317    
318     <table>
319     <tr>
320     <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
321     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
322     </tr>
323     <tr>
324     <th>+</th>
325     <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
326     </tr>
327     <tr>
328     <th>+</th>
329     <ti>
330     Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
331     </ti>
332     </tr>
333     <tr>
334     <th>+</th>
335     <ti>
336     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
337     connection.
338     </ti>
339     </tr>
340     <tr>
341     <th>-</th>
342     <ti>Huge download</ti>
343     </tr>
344     </table>
345    
346     </body>
347     </subsection>
348     </section>
349     <section>
350     <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
351     <subsection>
352     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
353     <body>
354    
355     <p>
356     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
357     wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
358     LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
359     find them?
360     </p>
361    
362     <p>
363     Visit one of our <uri
364     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
365 swift 1.7 <path>releases/ppc/2004.1/livecd/universal</path>, which is
366 swift 1.1 the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that
367     directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
368     which you can write on a CD-R.
369     </p>
370    
371     <p>
372     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
373     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
374 swift 1.7 <path>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
375 swift 1.1 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
376     link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
377     </p>
378    
379     <p>
380     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
381     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
382     tools on how to do this.
383     </p>
384    
385     <ul>
386     <li>
387     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
388     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
389     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
390     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
391     </li>
392     <li>
393     With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
394     type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
395     will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
396     recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
397     following parameters:
398     <ul>
399     <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
400     <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
401     <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
402     <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
403     <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
404     </ul>
405     Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
406     </li>
407     <li>
408     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
409     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
410     by the path to the ISO file :)
411     </li>
412     <li>
413 bennyc 1.6 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
414     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
415 swift 1.3 <c>Start</c>.
416     </li>
417     <li>
418 swift 1.1 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
419     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
420     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
421     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
422     </li>
423     <li>
424     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
425     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
426     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
427     </li>
428     </ul>
429    
430     </body>
431     </subsection>
432 swift 1.7 </section>
433     <section>
434     <title>Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)</title>
435 swift 1.1 <subsection>
436 swift 1.7 <title>Default: Apple/IBM</title>
437 swift 1.1 <body>
438    
439     <p>
440     Place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the 'C' key at
441     bootup (or run an OldWorld bootloader like BootX or quik). You will be greeted
442     by a friendly welcome message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the
443     screen.
444     </p>
445    
446     <p>
447     At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use.
448 swift 1.7 We provide <c>G3</c>, <c>G3-SMP</c>, <c>G4</c>, <c>G4-SMP</c>, <c>G5</c>,
449     <c>G5-SMP</c> and <c>G</c>. The various <c>-SMP</c> kernels are needed if your
450     system has multiple CPUs.
451 swift 1.1 </p>
452    
453     <p>
454     You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
455     table lists the available boot options you can add:
456     </p>
457    
458     <table>
459     <tr>
460     <th>Boot Option</th>
461     <th>Description</th>
462     </tr>
463     <tr>
464     <ti><c>video</c></ti>
465     <ti>
466     This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
467     <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>, <c>aty128</c> or
468     <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate
469     you want to use. For instance <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75</c>. If you are
470     uncertain what to choose, <c>ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
471     </ti>
472     </tr>
473     <tr>
474 pylon 1.2 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
475 swift 1.1 <ti>
476     Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17'')
477     </ti>
478     </tr>
479     <tr>
480     <ti><c>debug</c></ti>
481     <ti>
482     Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
483     the LiveCD
484     </ti>
485     </tr>
486 swift 1.7 <tr>
487     <ti><c>sleep=X</c></ti>
488     <ti>
489     Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
490     CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
491     </ti>
492     </tr>
493     <tr>
494     <ti><c>bootfrom=X</c></ti>
495     <ti>
496     Boot from a different device
497     </ti>
498     </tr>
499 swift 1.1 </table>
500    
501     <p>
502     At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
503 swift 1.7 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
504     Booted...</uri>.
505 swift 1.1 </p>
506    
507 swift 1.7 </body>
508     </subsection>
509     <subsection>
510     <title>Alternative: Pegasos</title>
511     <body>
512    
513 swift 1.1 <p>
514 swift 1.7 On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
515 swift 1.8 <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop
516     cdroot</c>. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the
517     command-line. For instance <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0
518     init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M</c>.
519 swift 1.1 </p>
520    
521 swift 1.7 </body>
522     </subsection>
523     <subsection id="booted">
524     <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
525     <body>
526 swift 1.1
527     <p>
528 swift 1.7 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
529     switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
530     back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
531 swift 1.1 </p>
532    
533     <p>
534     If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
535     <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
536     keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
537     </p>
538    
539     <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
540     <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
541     on the LiveCD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the LiveCD kernel)</comment>
542     # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
543     </pre>
544    
545     <p>
546     Now load the keymap of your choice:
547     </p>
548    
549     <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
550 swift 1.7 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
551 swift 1.1 </pre>
552    
553     <p>
554     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
555     </p>
556    
557     </body>
558     </subsection>
559     <subsection id="hardware">
560     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
561     <body>
562    
563     <p>
564     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
565     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
566     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
567     SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
568     modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
569     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
570     </p>
571    
572     <p>
573     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
574     certain kinds of network interfaces):
575     </p>
576    
577     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
578     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
579     </pre>
580    
581     </body>
582     </subsection>
583     <subsection>
584     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
585     <body>
586    
587     <p>
588     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
589     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
590     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
591     more precise impression):
592     </p>
593    
594     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
595     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
596     </pre>
597    
598     <p>
599     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
600     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
601     disk):
602     </p>
603    
604     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
605     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
606     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
607     </pre>
608    
609     </body>
610     </subsection>
611     <subsection>
612     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
613     <body>
614    
615     <p>
616     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
617     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
618     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
619     the root password.
620     </p>
621    
622     <p>
623     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
624     </p>
625    
626     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
627     # <i>passwd</i>
628     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
629     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
630     </pre>
631    
632     <p>
633 swift 1.5 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
634 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
635     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
636     </p>
637    
638     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
639     # <i>useradd john</i>
640     # <i>passwd john</i>
641     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
642     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
643     </pre>
644    
645     <p>
646     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
647     <c>su</c>:
648     </p>
649    
650     <pre caption="Changing user id">
651     # <i>su john -</i>
652     </pre>
653    
654     </body>
655     </subsection>
656     <subsection>
657     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
658     <body>
659    
660     <p>
661     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
662     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
663     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
664     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
665     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
666     </p>
667    
668     <p>
669     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
670     </p>
671    
672     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
673     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
674     </pre>
675    
676     <p>
677     To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
678     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
679     </p>
680    
681     </body>
682     </subsection>
683     </section>
684     </sections>

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