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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.11 2004/05/09 10:40:15 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The PPC Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39 swap)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 For the <e>PowerPC architecture</e>, you can install Gentoo/PPC on machines
43 having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4
44 or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the iBook, the PowerBook,
45 Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos I and II... We also provide limited
46 support for oldworld systems, IBM (rs/6000, iSeries, zSeries, ...) and Amiga
47 systems. Be sure to read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml">Gentoo
48 PPC FAQ</uri> too before you begin.
49 </li>
50 </ul>
51
52 </body>
53 </subsection>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>Make your Choice</title>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Introduction</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
63 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
64 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
65 Gentoo base system.
66 </p>
67
68 <p>
69 The installation media we will describe are:
70 </p>
71
72 <ul>
73 <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
74 <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
75 </ul>
76
77 <p>
78 Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
79 the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
80 make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
81 three-stage installation.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>The Three Stages</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
92 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
93 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
94 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
95 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
96 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
97 been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
98 Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
99 packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 Now what stage do you have to choose?
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
108 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
109 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
110 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
111 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
112 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
117 Internet connection.
118 </p>
119
120 <table>
121 <tr>
122 <th>Stage1</th>
123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>
128 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
129 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
130 </ti>
131 </tr>
132 <tr>
133 <th>+</th>
134 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
135 </tr>
136 <tr>
137 <th>+</th>
138 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
139 </tr>
140 <tr>
141 <th>-</th>
142 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
143 </tr>
144 <tr>
145 <th>-</th>
146 <ti>
147 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
148 </ti>
149 </tr>
150 <tr>
151 <th>-</th>
152 <ti>
153 Not suitable for networkless installations
154 </ti>
155 </tr>
156 </table>
157
158 <p>
159 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
160 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
161 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
162 </p>
163
164 <p>
165 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
166 Internet connection.
167 </p>
168
169 <table>
170 <tr>
171 <th>Stage2</th>
172 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>+</th>
176 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
177 </tr>
178 <tr>
179 <th>+</th>
180 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
181 </tr>
182 <tr>
183 <th>+</th>
184 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
185 </tr>
186 <tr>
187 <th>-</th>
188 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
189 </tr>
190 <tr>
191 <th>-</th>
192 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
193 </tr>
194 <tr>
195 <th>-</th>
196 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
197 </tr>
198 <tr>
199 <th>-</th>
200 <ti>
201 Not suitable for networkless installations
202 </ti>
203 </tr>
204 </table>
205
206 <p>
207 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
208 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
209 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
210 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
211 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
212 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
213 </p>
214
215 <table>
216 <tr>
217 <th>Stage3</th>
218 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th>+</th>
222 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
223 </tr>
224 <tr>
225 <th>+</th>
226 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
227 </tr>
228 <tr>
229 <th>-</th>
230 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
231 </tr>
232 <tr>
233 <th>-</th>
234 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
235 </tr>
236 </table>
237
238 <p>
239 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
240 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
241 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
242 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
243 with the new optimization settings.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 Now take a look at the available installation media.
248 </p>
249
250 </body>
251 </subsection>
252 <subsection>
253 <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
258 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
259 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
260 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
261 </p>
262
263 <p>
264 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
265 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
266 LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
267 Gentoo without a working network configuration.
268 </p>
269
270 <p>
271 Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
272 </p>
273
274 </body>
275 </subsection>
276 <subsection>
277 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
282 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
283 does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
284 source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this
285 LiveCD can be found in the <path>universal</path> subdirectory and is called
286 <c>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
287 </p>
288
289 <table>
290 <tr>
291 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
292 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
293 </tr>
294 <tr>
295 <th>+</th>
296 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
297 </tr>
298 <tr>
299 <th>+</th>
300 <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
301 </tr>
302 <tr>
303 <th>+</th>
304 <ti>
305 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
306 net
307 </ti>
308 </tr>
309 <tr>
310 <th>-</th>
311 <ti>
312 Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
313 suitable for networkless installation
314 </ti>
315 </tr>
316 </table>
317
318 </body>
319 </subsection>
320 <subsection>
321 <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
326 networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
327 individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called
328 <c>install-ppc-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
329 <path>universal</path> subdirectory.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see
334 that we provide <e>Gentoo Package CDs</e>. This CD (which isn't
335 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
336 after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
337 need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
338 etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
339 CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is
340 called <c>packages-g4-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the appropriate
341 subdirectory (<path>g4/</path>).
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
346 installation.
347 </p>
348
349 <table>
350 <tr>
351 <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
352 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
353 </tr>
354 <tr>
355 <th>+</th>
356 <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
357 </tr>
358 <tr>
359 <th>+</th>
360 <ti>
361 Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
362 </ti>
363 </tr>
364 <tr>
365 <th>+</th>
366 <ti>
367 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
368 connection.
369 </ti>
370 </tr>
371 <tr>
372 <th>-</th>
373 <ti>Huge download</ti>
374 </tr>
375 </table>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 </section>
380 <section>
381 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
382 <subsection>
383 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
384 <body>
385
386 <p>
387 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
388 wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
389 LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
390 find them?
391 </p>
392
393 <p>
394 Visit one of our <uri
395 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
396 <path>releases/ppc/2004.1/livecd/universal</path>, which is
397 the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that
398 directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
399 which you can write on a CD-R.
400 </p>
401
402 <p>
403 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
404 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
405 <path>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
406 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
407 link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
408 </p>
409
410 <p>
411 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
412 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
413 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
417 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 19462D47</i>
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 Now verify the signature:
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
425 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
426 <comment>(If everything goes well, you should see something like this:)</comment>
427 gpg: Signature made Mon Apr 19 18:54:40 2004 EDT using DSA key ID 19462D47
428 gpg: Good signature from "John Davis (Gentoo Linux Developer) &lt;zhen@gentoo.org&gt;"
429 gpg: aka "Gentoo Linux Release Engineering &lt;releng@gentoo.org&gt;"
430 </pre>
431
432 <p>
433 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
434 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
435 tools on how to do this.
436 </p>
437
438 <ul>
439 <li>
440 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
441 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
442 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
443 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
444 </li>
445 <li>
446 With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
447 type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
448 will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
449 recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
450 following parameters:
451 <ul>
452 <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
453 <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
454 <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
455 <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
456 <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
457 </ul>
458 Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
459 </li>
460 <li>
461 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
462 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
463 by the path to the ISO file :)
464 </li>
465 <li>
466 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
467 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
468 <c>Start</c>.
469 </li>
470 <li>
471 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
472 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
473 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
474 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
475 </li>
476 <li>
477 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
478 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
479 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
480 </li>
481 </ul>
482
483 </body>
484 </subsection>
485 </section>
486 <section>
487 <title>Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)</title>
488 <subsection>
489 <title>Default: Apple/IBM</title>
490 <body>
491
492 <p>
493 Place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the 'C' key at
494 bootup (or run an OldWorld bootloader like BootX or quik). You will be greeted
495 by a friendly welcome message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the
496 screen.
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use.
501 We provide <c>G3</c>, <c>G3-SMP</c>, <c>G4</c>, <c>G4-SMP</c>, <c>G5</c>,
502 <c>G5-SMP</c> and <c>G</c>. The various <c>-SMP</c> kernels are needed if your
503 system has multiple CPUs.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
508 table lists the available boot options you can add:
509 </p>
510
511 <table>
512 <tr>
513 <th>Boot Option</th>
514 <th>Description</th>
515 </tr>
516 <tr>
517 <ti><c>video</c></ti>
518 <ti>
519 This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
520 <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>, <c>aty128</c> or
521 <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate
522 you want to use. For instance <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75</c>. If you are
523 uncertain what to choose, <c>ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
524 </ti>
525 </tr>
526 <tr>
527 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
528 <ti>
529 Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17'')
530 </ti>
531 </tr>
532 <tr>
533 <ti><c>debug</c></ti>
534 <ti>
535 Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
536 the LiveCD
537 </ti>
538 </tr>
539 <tr>
540 <ti><c>sleep=X</c></ti>
541 <ti>
542 Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
543 CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
544 </ti>
545 </tr>
546 <tr>
547 <ti><c>bootfrom=X</c></ti>
548 <ti>
549 Boot from a different device
550 </ti>
551 </tr>
552 </table>
553
554 <p>
555 At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
556 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
557 Booted...</uri>.
558 </p>
559
560 </body>
561 </subsection>
562 <subsection>
563 <title>Alternative: Pegasos</title>
564 <body>
565
566 <p>
567 On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
568 <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop
569 cdroot</c>. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the
570 command-line. For instance <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0
571 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M</c>.
572 </p>
573
574 </body>
575 </subsection>
576 <subsection id="booted">
577 <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
578 <body>
579
580 <p>
581 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
582 switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
583 back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
584 </p>
585
586 <p>
587 If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
588 <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
589 keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
590 </p>
591
592 <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
593 <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
594 on the LiveCD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the LiveCD kernel)</comment>
595 # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
596 </pre>
597
598 <p>
599 Now load the keymap of your choice:
600 </p>
601
602 <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
603 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>
607 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
608 </p>
609
610 </body>
611 </subsection>
612 <subsection id="hardware">
613 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
614 <body>
615
616 <p>
617 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
618 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
619 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
620 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
621 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
622 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
623 </p>
624
625 <p>
626 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
627 certain kinds of network interfaces):
628 </p>
629
630 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
631 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
632 </pre>
633
634 </body>
635 </subsection>
636 <subsection>
637 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
638 <body>
639
640 <p>
641 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
642 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
643 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
644 more precise impression):
645 </p>
646
647 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
648 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
649 </pre>
650
651 <p>
652 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
653 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
654 disk):
655 </p>
656
657 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
658 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
659 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
660 </pre>
661
662 </body>
663 </subsection>
664 <subsection>
665 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
666 <body>
667
668 <p>
669 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
670 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
671 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
672 the root password.
673 </p>
674
675 <p>
676 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
677 </p>
678
679 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
680 # <i>passwd</i>
681 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
682 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
683 </pre>
684
685 <p>
686 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
687 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
688 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
692 # <i>useradd john</i>
693 # <i>passwd john</i>
694 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
695 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
696 </pre>
697
698 <p>
699 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
700 <c>su</c>:
701 </p>
702
703 <pre caption="Changing user id">
704 # <i>su john -</i>
705 </pre>
706
707 </body>
708 </subsection>
709 <subsection>
710 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
711 <body>
712
713 <p>
714 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
715 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
716 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
717 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
718 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
719 </p>
720
721 <p>
722 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
723 </p>
724
725 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
726 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
727 </pre>
728
729 <p>
730 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
731 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
732 </p>
733
734 </body>
735 </subsection>
736 </section>
737 </sections>

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