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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.15 2004/07/03 19:01:52 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The PPC Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39 swap)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 For the <e>PowerPC architecture</e>, you can install Gentoo/PPC on machines
43 having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4
44 or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the iBook, the PowerBook,
45 Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos I and II... We also provide limited
46 support for oldworld systems, IBM (rs/6000, iSeries, pSeries, ...) and Amiga
47 systems. Be sure to read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml">Gentoo
48 PPC FAQ</uri> too before you begin.
49 </li>
50 </ul>
51
52 </body>
53 </subsection>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>Make your Choice</title>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Introduction</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
63 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
64 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
65 Gentoo base system.
66 </p>
67
68 <p>
69 The installation media we will describe are:
70 </p>
71
72 <ul>
73 <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
74 <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
75 </ul>
76
77 <p>
78 Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
79 the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
80 make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
81 three-stage installation.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>The Three Stages</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
92 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
93 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
94 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
95 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
96 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
97 been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
98 Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
99 packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 Now what stage do you have to choose?
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
108 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
109 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
110 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
111 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
112 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
113 </p>
114
115 <p>
116 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
117 Internet connection.
118 </p>
119
120 <table>
121 <tr>
122 <th>Stage1</th>
123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>
128 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
129 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
130 </ti>
131 </tr>
132 <tr>
133 <th>+</th>
134 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
135 </tr>
136 <tr>
137 <th>+</th>
138 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
139 </tr>
140 <tr>
141 <th>-</th>
142 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
143 </tr>
144 <tr>
145 <th>-</th>
146 <ti>
147 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
148 </ti>
149 </tr>
150 <tr>
151 <th>-</th>
152 <ti>
153 Not suitable for networkless installations
154 </ti>
155 </tr>
156 </table>
157
158 <p>
159 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
160 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
161 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
162 </p>
163
164 <p>
165 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
166 Internet connection.
167 </p>
168
169 <table>
170 <tr>
171 <th>Stage2</th>
172 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>+</th>
176 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
177 </tr>
178 <tr>
179 <th>+</th>
180 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
181 </tr>
182 <tr>
183 <th>+</th>
184 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
185 </tr>
186 <tr>
187 <th>-</th>
188 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
189 </tr>
190 <tr>
191 <th>-</th>
192 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
193 </tr>
194 <tr>
195 <th>-</th>
196 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
197 </tr>
198 <tr>
199 <th>-</th>
200 <ti>
201 Not suitable for networkless installations
202 </ti>
203 </tr>
204 </table>
205
206 <p>
207 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
208 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
209 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
210 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
211 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
212 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
213 </p>
214
215 <table>
216 <tr>
217 <th>Stage3</th>
218 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th>+</th>
222 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
223 </tr>
224 <tr>
225 <th>+</th>
226 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
227 </tr>
228 <tr>
229 <th>-</th>
230 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
231 </tr>
232 <tr>
233 <th>-</th>
234 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
235 </tr>
236 </table>
237
238 <p>
239 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
240 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
241 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
242 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
243 with the new optimization settings.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 Now take a look at the available installation media.
248 </p>
249
250 </body>
251 </subsection>
252 <subsection>
253 <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
258 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
259 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
260 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
261 </p>
262
263 <p>
264 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
265 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
266 LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
267 Gentoo without a working network configuration.
268 </p>
269
270 <p>
271 Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
272 </p>
273
274 </body>
275 </subsection>
276 <subsection>
277 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
282 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
283 does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
284 source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this
285 LiveCD can be found in the <path>universal</path> subdirectory and is called
286 <c>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
287 </p>
288
289 <table>
290 <tr>
291 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
292 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
293 </tr>
294 <tr>
295 <th>+</th>
296 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
297 </tr>
298 <tr>
299 <th>+</th>
300 <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
301 </tr>
302 <tr>
303 <th>+</th>
304 <ti>
305 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
306 net
307 </ti>
308 </tr>
309 <tr>
310 <th>-</th>
311 <ti>
312 Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
313 suitable for networkless installation
314 </ti>
315 </tr>
316 </table>
317
318 </body>
319 </subsection>
320 <subsection>
321 <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
326 networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
327 individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called
328 <c>install-ppc-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
329 <path>universal</path> subdirectory.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see
334 that we provide <e>Gentoo Package CDs</e>. This CD (which isn't
335 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
336 after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
337 need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
338 etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
339 CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is
340 called <c>packages-g4-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the appropriate
341 subdirectory (<path>g4/</path>).
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
346 installation.
347 </p>
348
349 <table>
350 <tr>
351 <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
352 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
353 </tr>
354 <tr>
355 <th>+</th>
356 <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
357 </tr>
358 <tr>
359 <th>+</th>
360 <ti>
361 Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
362 </ti>
363 </tr>
364 <tr>
365 <th>+</th>
366 <ti>
367 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
368 connection.
369 </ti>
370 </tr>
371 <tr>
372 <th>-</th>
373 <ti>Huge download</ti>
374 </tr>
375 </table>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 </section>
380 <section>
381 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
382 <subsection>
383 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
384 <body>
385
386 <p>
387 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
388 wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
389 LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
390 find them?
391 </p>
392
393 <p>
394 Visit one of our <uri
395 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
396 <path>releases/ppc/2004.1/livecd/universal</path>, which is
397 the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that
398 directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
399 which you can write on a CD-R.
400 </p>
401
402 <p>
403 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
404 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
405 <path>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
406 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
407 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
408 </p>
409
410 <!--
411 <p>
412 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
413 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
414 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
418 $ <i>gpg - -keyserver pgp.mit.edu - -recv-keys 19462D47</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 Now verify the signature:
423 </p>
424
425 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
426 $ <i>gpg - -verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
427 <comment>(If everything goes well, you should see something like this:)</comment>
428 gpg: Signature made Mon Apr 19 18:54:40 2004 EDT using DSA key ID 19462D47
429 gpg: Good signature from "John Davis (Gentoo Linux Developer) &lt;zhen@gentoo.org&gt;"
430 gpg: aka "Gentoo Linux Release Engineering &lt;releng@gentoo.org&gt;"
431 </pre>
432 -->
433
434 <p>
435 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
436 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
437 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
438 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
439 </p>
440
441 <ul>
442 <li>
443 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
444 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
445 by the path to the ISO file :)
446 </li>
447 <li>
448 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
449 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
450 <c>Start</c>.
451 </li>
452 </ul>
453
454 </body>
455 </subsection>
456 </section>
457 <section>
458 <title>Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)</title>
459 <subsection>
460 <title>Default: Apple/IBM</title>
461 <body>
462
463 <p>
464 Place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the 'C' key at
465 bootup (or run an OldWorld bootloader like BootX or quik). You will be greeted
466 by a friendly welcome message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the
467 screen.
468 </p>
469
470 <p>
471 At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use.
472 We provide <c>G3</c>, <c>G3-SMP</c>, <c>G4</c>, <c>G4-SMP</c>, <c>G5</c>,
473 <c>G5-SMP</c> and <c>G</c>. The various <c>-SMP</c> kernels are needed if your
474 system has multiple CPUs.
475 </p>
476
477 <p>
478 You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
479 table lists the available boot options you can add:
480 </p>
481
482 <table>
483 <tr>
484 <th>Boot Option</th>
485 <th>Description</th>
486 </tr>
487 <tr>
488 <ti><c>video</c></ti>
489 <ti>
490 This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
491 <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>, <c>aty128</c> or
492 <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate
493 you want to use. For instance <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75</c>. If you are
494 uncertain what to choose, <c>ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
495 </ti>
496 </tr>
497 <tr>
498 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
499 <ti>
500 Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17'')
501 </ti>
502 </tr>
503 <tr>
504 <ti><c>debug</c></ti>
505 <ti>
506 Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
507 the LiveCD
508 </ti>
509 </tr>
510 <tr>
511 <ti><c>sleep=X</c></ti>
512 <ti>
513 Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
514 CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
515 </ti>
516 </tr>
517 <tr>
518 <ti><c>bootfrom=X</c></ti>
519 <ti>
520 Boot from a different device
521 </ti>
522 </tr>
523 </table>
524
525 <p>
526 At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
527 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
528 Booted...</uri>.
529 </p>
530
531 </body>
532 </subsection>
533 <subsection>
534 <title>Alternative: Pegasos</title>
535 <body>
536
537 <p>
538 On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
539 <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop
540 cdroot</c>. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the
541 command-line. For instance <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0
542 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M</c>.
543 </p>
544
545 </body>
546 </subsection>
547 <subsection id="booted">
548 <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
549 <body>
550
551 <p>
552 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
553 switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
554 back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
555 </p>
556
557 <p>
558 If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
559 <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
560 keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
561 </p>
562
563 <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
564 <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
565 on the LiveCD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the LiveCD kernel)</comment>
566 # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
567 </pre>
568
569 <p>
570 Now load the keymap of your choice:
571 </p>
572
573 <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
574 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
575 </pre>
576
577 <p>
578 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
579 </p>
580
581 </body>
582 </subsection>
583 <subsection id="hardware">
584 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
589 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
590 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
591 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
592 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
593 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
594 </p>
595
596 <p>
597 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
598 certain kinds of network interfaces):
599 </p>
600
601 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
602 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
603 </pre>
604
605 </body>
606 </subsection>
607 <subsection>
608 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
609 <body>
610
611 <p>
612 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
613 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
614 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
615 more precise impression):
616 </p>
617
618 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
619 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
620 </pre>
621
622 <p>
623 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
624 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
625 disk):
626 </p>
627
628 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
629 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
630 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
631 </pre>
632
633 </body>
634 </subsection>
635 <subsection>
636 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
637 <body>
638
639 <p>
640 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
641 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
642 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
643 the root password.
644 </p>
645
646 <p>
647 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
648 </p>
649
650 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
651 # <i>passwd</i>
652 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
653 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
654 </pre>
655
656 <p>
657 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
658 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
659 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
660 </p>
661
662 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
663 # <i>useradd john</i>
664 # <i>passwd john</i>
665 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
666 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
667 </pre>
668
669 <p>
670 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
671 <c>su</c>:
672 </p>
673
674 <pre caption="Changing user id">
675 # <i>su john -</i>
676 </pre>
677
678 </body>
679 </subsection>
680 <subsection>
681 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
682 <body>
683
684 <p>
685 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
686 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
687 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
688 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
689 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
690 </p>
691
692 <p>
693 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
694 </p>
695
696 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
697 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
698 </pre>
699
700 <p>
701 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
702 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
703 </p>
704
705 </body>
706 </subsection>
707 </section>
708 </sections>

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