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You can only use a stage3 when doing a networkless installation

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.8 2004/05/03 07:53:45 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The PPC Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
39 swap)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 For the <e>PowerPC architecture</e>, you can install Gentoo/PPC on machines
43 having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4
44 or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the iBook, the PowerBook,
45 Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos I and II... We also provide limited
46 support for oldworld systems, IBM (rs/6000, iSeries, zSeries, ...) and Amiga
47 systems. Be sure to read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml">Gentoo
48 PPC FAQ</uri> too before you begin.
49 </li>
50 </ul>
51
52 </body>
53 </subsection>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>Make your Choice</title>
57 <subsection>
58 <title>Introduction</title>
59 <body>
60
61 <p>
62 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
63 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
64 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
65 Gentoo base system.
66 </p>
67
68 <p>
69 The installation media we will describe are:
70 </p>
71
72 <ul>
73 <li>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</li>
74 <li>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</li>
75 </ul>
76
77 <p>
78 Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
79 the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
80 make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
81 three-stage installation.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>The Three Stages</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
92 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
93 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
94 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
95 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
96 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
97 been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
98 Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
99 packages). If you want this, you have to use a <e>stage3</e> tarball.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 Now what stage do you have to choose?
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
108 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
109 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
110 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
111 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
112 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
113 </p>
114
115 <table>
116 <tr>
117 <th>Stage1</th>
118 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
119 </tr>
120 <tr>
121 <th>+</th>
122 <ti>
123 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
124 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
125 </ti>
126 </tr>
127 <tr>
128 <th>+</th>
129 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
130 </tr>
131 <tr>
132 <th>+</th>
133 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
134 </tr>
135 <tr>
136 <th>-</th>
137 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <th>-</th>
141 <ti>
142 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
143 </ti>
144 </tr>
145 </table>
146
147 <p>
148 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
149 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
150 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
151 </p>
152
153 <table>
154 <tr>
155 <th>Stage2</th>
156 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
157 </tr>
158 <tr>
159 <th>+</th>
160 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
161 </tr>
162 <tr>
163 <th>+</th>
164 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
165 </tr>
166 <tr>
167 <th>+</th>
168 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
169 </tr>
170 <tr>
171 <th>-</th>
172 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>-</th>
176 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
177 </tr>
178 <tr>
179 <th>-</th>
180 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
181 </tr>
182 </table>
183
184 <p>
185 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
186 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
187 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
188 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
189 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
190 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
191 </p>
192
193 <table>
194 <tr>
195 <th>Stage3</th>
196 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
197 </tr>
198 <tr>
199 <th>+</th>
200 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
201 </tr>
202 <tr>
203 <th>-</th>
204 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
205 </tr>
206 <tr>
207 <th>-</th>
208 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
209 </tr>
210 </table>
211
212 <p>
213 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
214 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
215 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
216 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
217 with the new optimization settings.
218 </p>
219
220 <p>
221 Now take a look at the available installation media.
222 </p>
223
224 </body>
225 </subsection>
226 <subsection>
227 <title>Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
232 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
233 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
234 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
235 </p>
236
237 <p>
238 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, setup networking, initialize your
239 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
240 LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
241 Gentoo without a working network configuration.
242 </p>
243
244 <p>
245 Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
246 </p>
247
248 </body>
249 </subsection>
250 <subsection>
251 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
252 <body>
253
254 <p>
255 This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
256 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
257 does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
258 source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this
259 LiveCD can be found in the <path>universal</path> subdirectory and is called
260 <c>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso</c>.
261 </p>
262
263 <table>
264 <tr>
265 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
266 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
267 </tr>
268 <tr>
269 <th>+</th>
270 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
271 </tr>
272 <tr>
273 <th>+</th>
274 <ti>Suitable for a complete architecture</ti>
275 </tr>
276 <tr>
277 <th>+</th>
278 <ti>
279 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
280 net
281 </ti>
282 </tr>
283 <tr>
284 <th>-</th>
285 <ti>
286 Contains no stages, no portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
287 suitable for networkless installation
288 </ti>
289 </tr>
290 </table>
291
292 </body>
293 </subsection>
294 <subsection>
295 <title>Gentoo's Universal LiveCD</title>
296 <body>
297
298 <p>
299 Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
300 networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
301 individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called
302 <c>install-ppc-universal-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the
303 <path>universal</path> subdirectory.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see
308 that we provide <e>Gentoo Package CDs</e>. This CD (which isn't
309 bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
310 after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
311 need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
312 etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
313 CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is
314 called <c>packages-g4-2004.1.iso</c> and can be found in the appropriate
315 subdirectory (<path>g4/</path>).
316 </p>
317
318 <table>
319 <tr>
320 <th>Universal LiveCD with Packages CD</th>
321 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
322 </tr>
323 <tr>
324 <th>+</th>
325 <ti>Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture</ti>
326 </tr>
327 <tr>
328 <th>+</th>
329 <ti>
330 Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
331 </ti>
332 </tr>
333 <tr>
334 <th>+</th>
335 <ti>
336 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
337 connection.
338 </ti>
339 </tr>
340 <tr>
341 <th>-</th>
342 <ti>Huge download</ti>
343 </tr>
344 </table>
345
346 </body>
347 </subsection>
348 </section>
349 <section>
350 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
351 <subsection>
352 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
357 wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
358 LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
359 find them?
360 </p>
361
362 <p>
363 Visit one of our <uri
364 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
365 <path>releases/ppc/2004.1/livecd/universal</path>, which is
366 the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that
367 directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
368 which you can write on a CD-R.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
373 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
374 <path>install-ppc-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
375 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
376 link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
381 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
382 tools on how to do this.
383 </p>
384
385 <ul>
386 <li>
387 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
388 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
389 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
390 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
391 </li>
392 <li>
393 With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
394 type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
395 will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
396 recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
397 following parameters:
398 <ul>
399 <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
400 <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
401 <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
402 <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
403 <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
404 </ul>
405 Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
406 </li>
407 <li>
408 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
409 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
410 by the path to the ISO file :)
411 </li>
412 <li>
413 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
414 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
415 <c>Start</c>.
416 </li>
417 <li>
418 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
419 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
420 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
421 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
422 </li>
423 <li>
424 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
425 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
426 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
427 </li>
428 </ul>
429
430 </body>
431 </subsection>
432 </section>
433 <section>
434 <title>Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)</title>
435 <subsection>
436 <title>Default: Apple/IBM</title>
437 <body>
438
439 <p>
440 Place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the 'C' key at
441 bootup (or run an OldWorld bootloader like BootX or quik). You will be greeted
442 by a friendly welcome message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the
443 screen.
444 </p>
445
446 <p>
447 At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use.
448 We provide <c>G3</c>, <c>G3-SMP</c>, <c>G4</c>, <c>G4-SMP</c>, <c>G5</c>,
449 <c>G5-SMP</c> and <c>G</c>. The various <c>-SMP</c> kernels are needed if your
450 system has multiple CPUs.
451 </p>
452
453 <p>
454 You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
455 table lists the available boot options you can add:
456 </p>
457
458 <table>
459 <tr>
460 <th>Boot Option</th>
461 <th>Description</th>
462 </tr>
463 <tr>
464 <ti><c>video</c></ti>
465 <ti>
466 This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
467 <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>, <c>aty128</c> or
468 <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate
469 you want to use. For instance <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75</c>. If you are
470 uncertain what to choose, <c>ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
471 </ti>
472 </tr>
473 <tr>
474 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
475 <ti>
476 Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17'')
477 </ti>
478 </tr>
479 <tr>
480 <ti><c>debug</c></ti>
481 <ti>
482 Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
483 the LiveCD
484 </ti>
485 </tr>
486 <tr>
487 <ti><c>sleep=X</c></ti>
488 <ti>
489 Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
490 CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
491 </ti>
492 </tr>
493 <tr>
494 <ti><c>bootfrom=X</c></ti>
495 <ti>
496 Boot from a different device
497 </ti>
498 </tr>
499 </table>
500
501 <p>
502 At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
503 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
504 Booted...</uri>.
505 </p>
506
507 </body>
508 </subsection>
509 <subsection>
510 <title>Alternative: Pegasos</title>
511 <body>
512
513 <p>
514 On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
515 <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop
516 cdroot</c>. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the
517 command-line. For instance <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0
518 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M</c>.
519 </p>
520
521 </body>
522 </subsection>
523 <subsection id="booted">
524 <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
525 <body>
526
527 <p>
528 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
529 switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
530 back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
531 </p>
532
533 <p>
534 If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
535 <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
536 keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
537 </p>
538
539 <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
540 <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
541 on the LiveCD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the LiveCD kernel)</comment>
542 # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
543 </pre>
544
545 <p>
546 Now load the keymap of your choice:
547 </p>
548
549 <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
550 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
551 </pre>
552
553 <p>
554 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
555 </p>
556
557 </body>
558 </subsection>
559 <subsection id="hardware">
560 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
561 <body>
562
563 <p>
564 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
565 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
566 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
567 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
568 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
569 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
570 </p>
571
572 <p>
573 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
574 certain kinds of network interfaces):
575 </p>
576
577 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
578 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
579 </pre>
580
581 </body>
582 </subsection>
583 <subsection>
584 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
589 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
590 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
591 more precise impression):
592 </p>
593
594 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
595 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
596 </pre>
597
598 <p>
599 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
600 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
601 disk):
602 </p>
603
604 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
605 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
606 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
607 </pre>
608
609 </body>
610 </subsection>
611 <subsection>
612 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
613 <body>
614
615 <p>
616 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
617 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
618 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
619 the root password.
620 </p>
621
622 <p>
623 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
624 </p>
625
626 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
627 # <i>passwd</i>
628 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
629 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
630 </pre>
631
632 <p>
633 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
634 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
635 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
636 </p>
637
638 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
639 # <i>useradd john</i>
640 # <i>passwd john</i>
641 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
642 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
643 </pre>
644
645 <p>
646 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
647 <c>su</c>:
648 </p>
649
650 <pre caption="Changing user id">
651 # <i>su john -</i>
652 </pre>
653
654 </body>
655 </subsection>
656 <subsection>
657 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
658 <body>
659
660 <p>
661 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
662 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
663 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
664 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
665 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
666 </p>
667
668 <p>
669 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
670 </p>
671
672 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
673 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
674 </pre>
675
676 <p>
677 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
678 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
679 </p>
680
681 </body>
682 </subsection>
683 </section>
684 </sections>

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