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3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.54 2006/08/30 22:52:28 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.70 2012/06/29 15:57:32 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>7.0</version> 16<version>13</version>
12<date>2006-08-30</date> 17<date>2012-06-29</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Hardware Requirements</title> 20<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16<subsection> 21<subsection>
17<title>Introduction</title> 22<title>Introduction</title>
37 </ti> 42 </ti>
38</tr> 43</tr>
39<tr> 44<tr>
40 <th>Apple OldWorld machines</th> 45 <th>Apple OldWorld machines</th>
41 <ti> 46 <ti>
42 Apple Machines with an OpenFirmware revision less than 3, such as the Beige 47 Apple Machines with an Open Firmware revision less than 3, such as the Beige
43 G3s, PCI PowerMacs and PCI PowerBooks. PCI based Apple Clones should also 48 G3s, PCI PowerMacs and PCI PowerBooks. PCI-based Apple Clones should also
44 be supported. 49 be supported.
45 </ti> 50 </ti>
46</tr> 51</tr>
47<tr> 52<tr>
48 <th>Genesi's Pegasos</th> 53 <th>Genesi</th>
49 <ti> 54 <ti>
50 Pegasos I/II, Open Desktop Workstation 55 Pegasos I/II, Open Desktop Workstation, Efika
51 </ti> 56 </ti>
52</tr> 57</tr>
53<tr> 58<tr>
54 <th>IBM</th> 59 <th>IBM</th>
55 <ti> 60 <ti>
77</p> 82</p>
78 83
79</body> 84</body>
80</subsection> 85</subsection>
81</section> 86</section>
82<!-- Copy/paste of hb-install-x86-medium.xml, with s/x86/ppc/ --> 87
83<!-- START --> 88<!-- START -->
84<section> 89<section>
85<title>The Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title> 90<title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
86<subsection> 91<subsection>
87<title>Introduction</title> 92<title>Introduction</title>
88<body> 93<body>
89 94
90<p> 95<p>
91Gentoo Linux can be installed using a <e>stage3</e> tarball file. 96The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
92Such a tarball is an archive that contains a minimal environment from 97self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
93which you can succesfully install Gentoo Linux onto your system. 98During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
94</p> 99are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
95
96<p> 100</p>
97Installations using a stage1 or stage2 tarball file are not documented in the 101
98Gentoo Handbook - please read the <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">Gentoo
99FAQ</uri> on these matters.
100</p> 102<p>
101 103All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
102</body> 104partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet.
103</subsection>
104<subsection>
105<title>Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
106<body>
107
108<p> 105</p>
109An Installation CD is a bootable medium which contains a self-sustained Gentoo 106
110environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD. During the boot process 107<!--
111your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers are loaded. The Gentoo 108<impo>
112Installation CDs are maintained by Gentoo developers. 109If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
110like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
111instructions described in the <uri link="2008.0/">Gentoo 2008.0
112Handbooks</uri>.
113</impo>
114-->
115<!--
113</p> 116<p>
114 117The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
115<p>
116There currently are two Installation CDs available:
117</p> 118</p>
118 119
119<ul> 120<ul>
121 <li>
122 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
123 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
124 continue with the Gentoo installation.
125 </li>
120 <li> 126 <li>
121 The Universal Installation CD contains everything you need to install 127 The Universal Installation CD contains everything you need to install
122 Gentoo. It provides stage3 files for common architectures, source code 128 Gentoo. It provides stage3 files for common architectures, source code
123 for the extra applications you need to choose from and, of course, the 129 for the extra applications you need to choose from and, of course, the
124 installation instructions for your architecture. 130 installation instructions for your architecture.
125 </li> 131 </li>
126 <li>
127 The Minimal Installation CD contains only a minimal environment that allows
128 you to boot up and configure your network so you can connect to the
129 Internet. It does not contain any additional files and cannot be used
130 during the current installation approach.
131 </li>
132</ul> 132</ul>
133 133
134<p> 134<p>
135Gentoo also provides a Package CD. This is not an Installation CD but an 135Gentoo also provides a Package CD. This is not an Installation CD but an
136additional resource that you can exploit during the installation of your Gentoo 136additional resource that you can exploit during the installation of your Gentoo
141</p> 141</p>
142 142
143<p> 143<p>
144The use of the Package CD is covered later in this document. 144The use of the Package CD is covered later in this document.
145</p> 145</p>
146-->
147</body>
148</subsection>
149<subsection>
150<title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
151<body>
152
153<p>
154The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
155takes up around <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
156Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
157connection.
158</p>
159<!--
160<table>
161<tr>
162 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
163 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
164</tr>
165<tr>
166 <th>+</th>
167 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
168</tr>
169<tr>
170 <th>-</th>
171 <ti>
172 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
173 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
174 </ti>
175</tr>
176</table>
177-->
178</body>
179</subsection>
180<subsection>
181<title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
182<body>
183
184<p>
185A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
186suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
187manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
188three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
189official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
190performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
191the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
192Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
193</p>
194
195<p>
196Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
197id="release-dir"/>current-stage3/</path> on any of the <uri
198link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
199on the LiveCD.
200</p>
146 201
147</body> 202</body>
148</subsection> 203</subsection>
149</section> 204</section>
205
206
150<!-- STOP --> 207<!-- STOP -->
151<section> 208<section>
152<title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title> 209<title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
153<subsection> 210<subsection>
154<title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CD</title> 211<title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
155<body> 212<body>
156 213
214<p>
215You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
216downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
217the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
157<p> 218</p>
158You can download the Universal Installation CD (and, if you want to, the 219
159Packages CD as well) from one of our <uri 220<p>
221You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
160link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located 222link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
161in the <path>releases/ppc/2006.1/ppc32/installcd</path> directory; 223the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>current-iso/</path> directory.
162the Package CDs are located in the
163<path>releases/ppc/2006.1/ppc32/packagecd</path> directory.
164</p>
165
166<p> 224</p>
225
226<p>
167Inside those directories you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which 227Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
168you can write on a CD-R. 228can write on a CD-R.
169</p>
170
171<p> 229</p>
172After downloading the file, you can verify its integrity to see if it is 230
173corrupted or not:
174</p> 231<p>
175 232In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
176<ul>
177 <li>
178 You can check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we 233its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
234<path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
179 provide (for instance with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or 235checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
180 <uri link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows). 236link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
181 Verifying MD5 checksums with Mac OS X is described in the <uri
182 link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml#doc_chap1">Gentoo PPC FAQ</uri>.
183 </li>
184 <li>
185 You can verify the cryptographic signature that we provide. You need to
186 obtain the public key we use (0x17072058) before you proceed though.
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190<p> 237</p>
191To fetch our public key using the GnuPG application, run the following command: 238
239<p>
240Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
241verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
242<path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public keys whose
243key ids can be found on the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/index.xml">release
244engineering project site</uri>.
192</p> 245</p>
193 246
194<pre caption="Obtaining the public key"> 247<pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
248<comment>(... Substitute the key ids with those mentioned on the release engineering site ...)</comment>
195$ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x17072058</i> 249$ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 96D8BF6D 2D182910 17072058</i>
196</pre> 250</pre>
197 251
198<p> 252<p>
199Now verify the signature: 253Now verify the signature:
200</p> 254</p>
201 255
202<pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature"> 256<pre caption="Verify the files">
203$ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i> 257<comment>(Verify the cryptographic signature)</comment>
258$ <i>gpg --verify &lt;downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc&gt;</i>
259<comment>(Verify the checksum)</comment>
260$ <i>sha1sum -c &lt;downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc&gt;</i>
204</pre> 261</pre>
205 262
206<p> 263<p>
207To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you 264To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
208do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and 265do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
215 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso 272 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
216 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device 273 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device
217 path). 274 path).
218 </li> 275 </li>
219 <li> 276 <li>
220 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 277 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
221 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 278 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
222 <c>Start</c>.
223 </li> 279 </li>
224</ul> 280</ul>
225 281
226</body> 282</body>
227</subsection> 283</subsection>
239After the Installation CD loaded, you will be greeted by a friendly welcome 295After the Installation CD loaded, you will be greeted by a friendly welcome
240message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the screen. 296message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the screen.
241</p> 297</p>
242 298
243<p> 299<p>
244We provide one generic kernel, <e>apple</e>. This kernel is built with support 300We provide one generic kernel, <e>ppc32</e>. This kernel is built with support
245for multiple CPUs, but it will boot on single processor machines as well. 301for multiple CPUs, but it will boot on single processor machines as well.
246</p> 302</p>
247 303
248<p> 304<p>
249You can tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following table lists 305You can tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following table lists
285 <ti> 341 <ti>
286 If you want to use PCMCIA devices during your installation (like PCMCIA 342 If you want to use PCMCIA devices during your installation (like PCMCIA
287 network cards) you have to enable this option. 343 network cards) you have to enable this option.
288 </ti> 344 </ti>
289</tr> 345</tr>
346<tr>
347 <ti><c>dosshd</c></ti>
348 <ti>Starts <c>sshd</c>. Useful for unattended installs.</ti>
349</tr>
350<tr>
351 <ti><c>passwd=foo</c></ti>
352 <ti>
353 Sets whatever is after the = as the root password. Use with <c>dosshd</c>
354 for remote installs.
355 </ti>
356</tr>
290</table> 357</table>
291 358
292<p> 359<p>
293To use the above options, at the <e>boot:</e> prompt, type <e>apple</e> followed 360To use the above options, at the <e>boot:</e> prompt, type <e>ppc32</e> followed
294by the desired option. In the example below, we'll force the kernel to use the 361by the desired option. In the example below, we'll force the kernel to use the
295OpenFirmware framebuffer instead of the device specific driver. 362Open Firmware framebuffer instead of the device specific driver.
296</p> 363</p>
297 364
298<pre caption="Force the use of the OpenFirmware framebuffer"> 365<pre caption="Force the use of the Open Firmware framebuffer">
299boot: <i>apple video=ofonly</i> 366boot: <i>ppc32 video=ofonly</i>
300</pre> 367</pre>
301 368
302<p> 369<p>
303If you don't need to add any options, just hit enter at this prompt, and a 370If you don't need to add any options, just type ppc32 at this prompt, and a
304complete Gentoo Linux environment will be loaded from the CD. Continue with 371complete Gentoo Linux environment will be loaded from the CD. Continue with
305<uri link="#booted">And When You're Booted...</uri>. 372<uri link="#booted">And When You're Booted...</uri>.
306</p> 373</p>
307 374
308</body> 375</body>
334The most simple solution is to use MacOS 9 or earlier to bootstrap into a Linux 401The most simple solution is to use MacOS 9 or earlier to bootstrap into a Linux
335environment with a tool called BootX. 402environment with a tool called BootX.
336</p> 403</p>
337 404
338<p> 405<p>
339First, download <uri link="http://penguinppc.org/projects/bootx/">BootX</uri> 406First, download <uri link="http://penguinppc.org/bootloaders/bootx/">BootX</uri>
340and unpack the archive. Copy the the <c>BootX Extension</c> from the unpacked 407and unpack the archive. Copy the the <c>BootX Extension</c> from the unpacked
341archive into <c>Extensions Folder</c> and the BootX App Control Panel into 408archive into <c>Extensions Folder</c> and the BootX App Control Panel into
342<c>Control Panels</c>, both of which are located in your MacOS System Folder. 409<c>Control Panels</c>, both of which are located in your MacOS System Folder.
343Next, create a folder called "Linux Kernels" in your System folder and copy the 410Next, create a folder called "Linux Kernels" in your System folder and copy the
344<c>apple</c> kernel from the CD to this folder. Finally, copy <c>apple.igz</c> 411<c>ppc32</c> kernel from the CD to this folder. Finally, copy <c>ppc32.igz</c>
345from the Installation CD <path>boot</path> folder into the MacOS 412from the Installation CD <path>boot</path> folder into the MacOS
346<c>System Folder</c>. 413<c>System Folder</c>.
347</p> 414</p>
348 415
349<p> 416<p>
350To prepare BootX, start the BootX App Control Panel. First select the Options 417To prepare BootX, start the BootX App Control Panel. First select the Options
351dialog and check <c>Use Specified RAM Disk</c> and select <c>apple.igz</c> from 418dialog and check <c>Use Specified RAM Disk</c> and select <c>ppc32.igz</c> from
352your System Folder. Continue back to the initial screen and ensure that the 419your System Folder. Continue back to the initial screen and ensure that the
353ramdisk size is at least <c>32000</c>. Finally, set the kernel arguments as 420ramdisk size is at least <c>32000</c>. Finally, set the kernel arguments as
354shown below: 421shown below:
355</p> 422</p>
356 423
386</p> 453</p>
387 454
388<p> 455<p>
389If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use 456If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
390<c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available 457<c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
391keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>. On NewWorld machines or the 458keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
392Pegasos do not use the keymaps in <path>ppc</path> or <path>mac</path> as they
393are for ADB-based OldWorld machines.
394</p> 459</p>
395 460
396<pre caption="Listing available keymaps"> 461<pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
397<comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided 462<comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.)</comment>
398 on the Installation CD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the Installation CD
399 kernel)</comment>
400# <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i> 463# <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
401</pre> 464</pre>
402 465
403<p> 466<p>
404Now load the keymap of your choice: 467Now load the keymap of your choice:
412Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>. 475Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
413</p> 476</p>
414 477
415</body> 478</body>
416</subsection> 479</subsection>
417<subsection id="hardware">
418<title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
419<body>
420 480
421<p>
422When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
423loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
424vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases, it may
425not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some
426of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
427manually.
428</p>
429
430<p>
431In the next example we try to load the <c>airport</c> module. This module
432supports only the old Airport cards (802.11b). Airport Extreme (802.11g) is not
433supported on the InstallCD due to restrictions on firmware distribution.
434</p>
435
436<pre caption="Loading the airport module">
437# <i>modprobe airport</i>
438</pre>
439
440<p>
441On older iMacs, sometimes the network card is not detected properly. These use
442the BMAC driver:
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Loading the bmac module">
446# <i>modprobe bmac</i>
447</pre>
448
449</body>
450</subsection> 481<subsection>
482<include href="hb-install-bootconfig.xml"/>
451<subsection> 483</subsection>
452<title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
453<body>
454 484
455<p>
456If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
457performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
458test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
459more precise impression):
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Testing disk performance">
463# <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
468yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
469disk):
470</p>
471
472<pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
473<comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
474<comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
475</pre>
476
477</body>
478</subsection>
479<subsection id="useraccounts">
480<title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
481<body>
482
483<p>
484If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
485environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
486security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
487the root password.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
492</p>
493
494<pre caption="Changing the root password">
495# <i>passwd</i>
496New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
497Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
498</pre>
499
500<p>
501To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
502its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
503In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
504</p>
505
506<pre caption="Creating a user account">
507# <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
508# <i>passwd john</i>
509New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
510Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
511</pre>
512
513<p>
514You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
515<c>su</c>:
516</p>
517
518<pre caption="Changing user id">
519# <i>su - john</i>
520</pre>
521
522</body>
523</subsection>
524<subsection>
525<title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
526<body>
527
528<p>
529If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
530installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
531link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
532go to a new terminal and log in.
533</p>
534
535<p>
536If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
537<c>links</c> or even <c>links -g</c> for a graphical framebuffer browser to
538read it:
539</p>
540
541<pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
542# <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
543</pre>
544
545<p>
546However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
547more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
548as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
549chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
550document):
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
554# <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-ppc.xml</i>
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
559</p>
560
561</body>
562</subsection>
563<subsection>
564<title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
565<body>
566
567<p>
568If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
569Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
570install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
571account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
572(<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
573</p>
574
575<p>
576To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
577</p>
578
579<pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
580# <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
581</pre>
582
583<p>
584To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
585the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
586</p>
587
588</body>
589</subsection>
590</section> 485</section>
591</sections> 486</sections>

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