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Handbook for 2006.0, "Chuck Norris can divide by zero"

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-ppc-medium.xml,v 1.33 2006/02/26 20:10:43 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.9</version>
12 <date>2006-02-27</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>Apple NewWorld Machines</th>
34 <ti>
35 Power/PowerPC microprocessors (G3, G4, G5) such as iMac, eMac, iBook
36 PowerBook, Xserver, PowerMac
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Apple OldWorld machines</th>
41 <ti>
42 Apple Machines with an OpenFirmware revision less than 3, such as the Beige
43 G3s, PCI PowerMacs and PCI PowerBooks. PCI based Apple Clones should also
44 be supported.
45 </ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Genesi's Pegasos</th>
49 <ti>
50 Pegasos I/II, Open Desktop Workstation
51 </ti>
52 </tr>
53 <tr>
54 <th>IBM</th>
55 <ti>
56 RS/6000, iSeries, pSeries
57 </ti>
58 </tr>
59 <tr>
60 <th>Memory</th>
61 <ti>At least 64 MB</ti>
62 </tr>
63 <tr>
64 <th>Diskspace</th>
65 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
66 </tr>
67 <tr>
68 <th>Swap space</th>
69 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
70 </tr>
71 </table>
72
73 <p>
74 Be sure to read the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml">Gentoo PPC FAQ</uri>
75 for help with some common installation related issues or if you're unsure as to
76 just what's in that PowerPC machine you've got sitting on your desk right now.
77 </p>
78
79 </body>
80 </subsection>
81 </section>
82 <!-- Copy/paste from hb-install-x86-medium.xml (with s/x86/ppc/) -->
83 <!-- START -->
84 <section>
85 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>Introduction</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
92 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
93 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
94 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
99 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
100 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
101 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
102 latest version of the available packages.
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
107 the installation instructions described in the <uri
108 link="2006.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2006.0 Handbooks</uri>.
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 The two Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
113 </p>
114
115 <ul>
116 <li>
117 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
118 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
119 continue with the Gentoo installation.
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 The Gentoo <e>Universal</e> Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same
123 abilities as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains
124 several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
125 </li>
126 </ul>
127
128 <p>
129 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
130 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection>
136 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <p>
140 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-ppc-minimal-2006.0.iso</c> and
141 takes up only 52 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to install
142 Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
143 </p>
144
145 <table>
146 <tr>
147 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
148 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
149 </tr>
150 <tr>
151 <th>+</th>
152 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
153 </tr>
154 <tr>
155 <th>-</th>
156 <ti>
157 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
158 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
159 </ti>
160 </tr>
161 </table>
162
163 </body>
164 </subsection>
165 <subsection>
166 <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
167 <body>
168
169 <p>
170 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-ppc-universal-2006.0.iso</c>
171 and consumes about 578 MB on a CD. You can use this Installation CD to install
172 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
173 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
174 you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
175 </p>
176
177 <table>
178 <tr>
179 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
180 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
181 </tr>
182 <tr>
183 <th>+</th>
184 <ti>
185 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
186 connection.
187 </ti>
188 </tr>
189 <tr>
190 <th>-</th>
191 <ti>Huge download</ti>
192 </tr>
193 </table>
194
195 </body>
196 </subsection>
197 <subsection>
198 <title>Other CDs</title>
199 <body>
200
201 <p>
202 You might find a <e>Package CD</e> on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
203 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
204 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
205 set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such
206 as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
207 installation.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
212 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
213 </p>
214
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 <subsection>
218 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
223 to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
224 Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
225 stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
226 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
227 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
228 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
229 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
230 </p>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 </section>
235 <!-- STOP -->
236 <section>
237 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
238 <subsection>
239 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
240 <body>
241
242 <p>
243 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
244 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
245 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
250 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
251 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/ppc/2006.0/ppc32/installcd</path>
252 directory.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
257 can write on a CD-R.
258 </p>
259
260 <p>
261 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
262 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
263 <path>install-ppc-minimal-2006.0.iso.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
264 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or
265 <uri link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows. If
266 <c>md5sum</c> is not available on Mac OS X, see the
267 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml#doc_chap1">Gentoo PPC FAQ</uri> for help.
268 </p>
269
270 <p>
271 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
272 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
273 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
274 </p>
275
276 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
277 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 Now verify the signature:
282 </p>
283
284 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
285 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
286 </pre>
287
288 <p>
289 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
290 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
291 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
292 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
293 </p>
294
295 <ul>
296 <li>
297 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
298 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
299 device path).
300 </li>
301 <li>
302 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
303 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
304 <c>Start</c>.
305 </li>
306 </ul>
307
308 </body>
309 </subsection>
310 <subsection>
311 <title>Default: Booting the Installation CD with Yaboot</title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 On NewWorld machines place the Installation CD in the CD-ROM and reboot the
316 system. When the system-start-bell sounds, simply hold down the 'C' until the
317 CD loads.
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 After the Installation CD loaded, you will be greeted by a friendly welcome
322 message and a <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the screen.
323 </p>
324
325 <p>
326 We provide one generic kernel, <e>ppc32</e>. This kernel is built with support
327 for multiple CPUs, but it will boot on single processor machines as well.
328 </p>
329
330 <p>
331 You can tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following table lists
332 some of the available boot options you can add:
333 </p>
334
335 <table>
336 <tr>
337 <th>Boot Option</th>
338 <th>Description</th>
339 </tr>
340 <tr>
341 <ti><c>video</c></ti>
342 <ti>
343 This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
344 <c>nvidiafb</c>, <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>,
345 <c>aty128</c> or <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution
346 refresh rate and color depth you want to use. For instance,
347 <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75-32</c> will select the ATI Radeon frame buffer
348 at a resolution of 1280x1024 with a refresh rate of 75Hz and a color depth of
349 32 bits. If you are uncertain what to choose, and the default doesn't work,
350 <c>video=ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
351 </ti>
352 </tr>
353 <tr>
354 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
355 <ti>
356 Disables level 3 cache on some PowerBooks (needed for at least the 17&quot;)
357 </ti>
358 </tr>
359 <tr>
360 <ti><c>dofirewire</c></ti>
361 <ti>
362 Enables support for IEEE1394 (FireWire) devices, like external harddisks.
363 </ti>
364 </tr>
365 <tr>
366 <ti><c>dopcmcia</c></ti>
367 <ti>
368 If you want to use PCMCIA devices during your installation (like PCMCIA
369 network cards) you have to enable this option.
370 </ti>
371 </tr>
372 </table>
373
374 <p>
375 At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
376 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
377 Booted...</uri>.
378 </p>
379
380 </body>
381 </subsection>
382 <subsection>
383 <title>Alternative: Booting the Installation CD on a Pegasos</title>
384 <body>
385
386 <p>
387 On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
388 <c>boot cd /boot/menu</c>. This will open a small bootmenu where you can choose
389 between several preconfigured video configs. If you need any special boot
390 options you can append them to the command-line just like with Yaboot above.
391 For example: <c>boot cd /boot/pegasos video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M</c>.
392 The default kernel options (in case something goes wrong and you need it) are
393 preconfigured with <c>console=ttyS0,115200 console=tty0 init=/linuxrc
394 looptype=squashfs loop=/image.squashfs udev nodevfs cdroot root=/dev/ram0</c>.
395 </p>
396
397 </body>
398 </subsection>
399
400 <subsection>
401 <title>Alternative: Booting the Installation CD with BootX</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 If you have an OldWorld Mac the bootable portion of the livecd can't be used.
406 The most simple solution is to use MacOS to bootstrap into a Linux environment
407 with a tool called BootX.
408 </p>
409
410 <p>
411 First, download <uri link="http://penguinppc.org/projects/bootx/">BootX</uri>
412 and unpack the archive. Copy the the <c>BootX Extension</c> from the unpacked
413 archive into <c>Extensions Folder</c> and the BootX App Control Panel into
414 <c>Control Panels</c>, both of which are located in your MacOS System Folder.
415 Next, create a folder called "Linux Kernels" in your System folder and copy the
416 <c>ppc32</c> kernel from the CD to this folder. Finally, copy <c>ppc32.igz</c>
417 from the Installation CD <path>boot</path> folder into the MacOS
418 <c>System Folder</c>.
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 To prepare BootX, start the BootX App Control Panel. First select the Options
423 dialog and check <c>Use Specified RAM Disk</c> and select <c>ppc32.igz</c> from
424 your System Folder. Continue back to the initial screen and ensure that the
425 ramdisk size is at least <c>32000</c>. Finally, set the kernel arguments as
426 shown below:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="BootX kernel arguments">
430 cdroot root=/dev/ram0 init=linuxrc loop=image.squashfs looptype=squashfs console=tty0 nodevfs udev
431 </pre>
432
433 <note>
434 The kernel parameters in the yaboot section above are also applicable here. You
435 can append any of those options to the kernel arguments above.
436 </note>
437
438 <p>
439 Check once more to make sure the settings are correct and then save the
440 configuration. This saves typing just in case it doesn't boot or something is
441 missing. Press the Linux button at the top of the window. If everything goes
442 correctly, it should boot into the Installation CD. Continue with
443 <uri link="#booted">And When You're Booted...</uri>
444 </p>
445
446 </body>
447 </subsection>
448
449 <subsection id="booted">
450 <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
451 <body>
452
453 <p>
454 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
455 switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get
456 back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-F1. Due to the keyboard layout,
457 you may need to press Alt-fn-Fx on Apple machines.
458 </p>
459
460 <p>
461 If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
462 <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
463 keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>. On NewWorld machines or the
464 Pegasos do not use the keymaps in <path>ppc</path> or <path>mac</path> as they
465 are for ADB-based OldWorld machines.
466 </p>
467
468 <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
469 <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
470 on the Installation CD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the Installation CD
471 kernel)</comment>
472 # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 Now load the keymap of your choice:
477 </p>
478
479 <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
480 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
485 </p>
486
487 </body>
488 </subsection>
489 <subsection id="hardware">
490 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
495 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
496 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases, it may
497 not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some
498 of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
499 manually.
500 </p>
501
502 <p>
503 In the next example we try to load the <c>airport</c> module. This module
504 supports only the old Airport cards (802.11b). Airport Extreme (802.11g) is not
505 supported on the InstallCD due to restrictions on firmware distribution.
506 </p>
507
508 <pre caption="Loading the airport module">
509 # <i>modprobe airport</i>
510 </pre>
511
512 <p>
513 On older iMacs, sometimes the network card is not detected properly. These use
514 the BMAC driver:
515 </p>
516
517 <pre caption="Loading the bmac module">
518 # <i>modprobe bmac</i>
519 </pre>
520
521 </body>
522 </subsection>
523 <subsection>
524 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
525 <body>
526
527 <p>
528 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
529 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
530 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
531 more precise impression):
532 </p>
533
534 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
535 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
536 </pre>
537
538 <p>
539 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
540 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
541 disk):
542 </p>
543
544 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
545 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
546 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
547 </pre>
548
549 </body>
550 </subsection>
551 <subsection id="useraccounts">
552 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
553 <body>
554
555 <p>
556 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
557 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
558 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
559 the root password.
560 </p>
561
562 <p>
563 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
564 </p>
565
566 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
567 # <i>passwd</i>
568 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
569 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
570 </pre>
571
572 <p>
573 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
574 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
575 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
576 </p>
577
578 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
579 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
580 # <i>passwd john</i>
581 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
582 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
583 </pre>
584
585 <p>
586 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
587 <c>su</c>:
588 </p>
589
590 <pre caption="Changing user id">
591 # <i>su - john</i>
592 </pre>
593
594 </body>
595 </subsection>
596 <subsection>
597 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
598 <body>
599
600 <p>
601 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
602 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
603 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
604 go to a new terminal and log in.
605 </p>
606
607 <p>
608 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
609 <c>links</c> to read it:
610 </p>
611
612 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
613 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/handbook/html/index.html</i>
614 </pre>
615
616 <p>
617 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
618 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
619 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
620 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
621 document):
622 </p>
623
624 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
625 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-ppc.xml</i>
626 </pre>
627
628 <p>
629 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
630 </p>
631
632 </body>
633 </subsection>
634 <subsection>
635 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
636 <body>
637
638 <p>
639 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
640 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
641 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
642 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
643 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
644 </p>
645
646 <p>
647 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
648 </p>
649
650 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
651 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
652 </pre>
653
654 <p>
655 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
656 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
657 </p>
658
659 </body>
660 </subsection>
661 </section>
662 </sections>

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