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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.13 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.8 2004/12/31 18:00:09 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.8
11 neysx 1.11 <version>1.8</version>
12     <date>2004-11-21</date>
13 swift 1.8
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32     drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
33     <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
38     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
39     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
40     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
41     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
42     </p>
43    
44     </body>
45     </subsection>
46     <subsection>
47     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
48     <body>
49    
50     <p>
51     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
52     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
53     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
54     these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
55     called <e>slices</e>.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </subsection>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
63     <subsection>
64     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
69     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
70     </p>
71    
72     <table>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Partition</th>
75     <th>Filesystem</th>
76     <th>Size</th>
77     <th>Description</th>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
81     <ti>Partition map</ti>
82     <ti>31.5k</ti>
83     <ti>Partition map</ti>
84     </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
87     <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
88     <ti>800k</ti>
89     <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
93     <ti>(swap)</ti>
94     <ti>512M</ti>
95     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98     <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
99     <ti>ext3</ti>
100     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
101     <ti>Root partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     </table>
104    
105     <note>
106     There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
107     Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
108     Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
109     delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
110 sejo 1.7 You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
111 swift 1.1 </note>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
115     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
116     <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
117     Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
118     your Disk</uri>
119     </p>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
129     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
130     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
131     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
132     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
133     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
134     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
135     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
136     security and backups.
137     </p>
138    
139     <p>
140     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
141     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
142     </p>
143    
144     <ul>
145     <li>
146 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
147 swift 1.1 </li>
148     <li>
149     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
150     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
151     </li>
152     <li>
153     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
154     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
155     it is with multiple partitions)
156     </li>
157     <li>
158     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
159     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
160     </li>
161     </ul>
162    
163     <p>
164     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
165     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
166 swift 1.4 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
167 swift 1.6 limit for SCSI and SATA.
168 swift 1.1 </p>
169    
170     </body>
171     </subsection>
172     </section>
173     <section id="mac-fdisk">
174     <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) Partition your Disk</title>
175     <body>
176    
177     <p>
178     At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
182 swift 1.2 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
183 swift 1.1 </pre>
184    
185     <p>
186     First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
187     Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
188     It will ask for the partition number to delete.
189     </p>
190    
191     <p>
192     Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
193     ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
194     partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>.
195     </p>
196    
197     <note>
198     This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
199     you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
200 neysx 1.12 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
201 swift 1.1 </note>
202    
203     <p>
204     Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
205     ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c>
206     before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
207     <c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
208     you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
209     (mandatory).
210     </p>
211    
212     <p>
213     To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select
214     from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
215     <c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
216     space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
217     </p>
218    
219     <p>
220     To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
221     quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
222     </p>
223 sejo 1.7
224     <note>
225     To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there.
226     If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk.
227     Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
228     </note>
229    
230 swift 1.1 <p>
231     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
232     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
233     </p>
234    
235     </body>
236     </section>
237     <section id="fdisk">
238     <title>IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
239     <subsection>
240     <body>
241    
242     <p>
243     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
244     described previously, namely:
245     </p>
246    
247     <table>
248     <tr>
249     <th>Partition</th>
250     <th>Description</th>
251     </tr>
252     <tr>
253     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
254     <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
255     </tr>
256     <tr>
257     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
258     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
259     </tr>
260     <tr>
261     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
262     <ti>Root partition</ti>
263     </tr>
264     </table>
265    
266     <p>
267 neysx 1.5 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
268 swift 1.1 </p>
269    
270     </body>
271     </subsection>
272     <subsection>
273     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
274     <body>
275    
276     <p>
277     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
278     partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
279     use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
280     </p>
281    
282     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
283     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
284     </pre>
285    
286     <p>
287     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
288     this:
289     </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
292     Command (m for help):
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
297     </p>
298    
299     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
300     Command (m for help): p
301    
302     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
303     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
304     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
305    
306     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
307 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
308     /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
309     /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
310     /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
311     /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
312     /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
313     /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
314     /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
315 swift 1.1
316     Command (m for help):
317     </pre>
318    
319     <p>
320 neysx 1.11 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
321 swift 1.1 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
322     swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
323     </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </subsection>
327     <subsection>
328     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
333     <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
334     <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
335     </p>
336    
337 neysx 1.11 <note>
338     If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
339 swift 1.1 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
340     data to avoid the lose of it.
341     </note>
342    
343     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
344     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
345     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
346     </pre>
347    
348     <p>
349     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
350     if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
351     been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
352     changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
353     not be deleted.
354     </p>
355    
356     <p>
357     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
358     your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
359     and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
360     Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
361     </p>
362    
363     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
364     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
365     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
366     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
367    
368     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
369    
370     Command (m for help):
371     </pre>
372    
373     <p>
374     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
375     the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
376     previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
377     you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
378     </p>
379    
380     </body>
381     </subsection>
382     <subsection>
383     <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
384     <body>
385    
386     <p>
387     We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
388     partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
389     <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
390     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
391     <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
392     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
393     partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
394     partition type to "PPC PReP Boot".
395     </p>
396    
397     <note>
398     The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
399     </note>
400    
401     <pre caption="Crating to PReP boot partition">
402     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
403    
404     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
405     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
406     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
407    
408     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
409    
410     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
411     Command action
412     e extended
413     p primary partition (1-4)
414     <i>p</i>
415     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
416     First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
417     Using default value 1
418     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
419     6761): <i>+8M</i>
420    
421     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
422     Selected partition 1
423     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
424     Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
425    
426     Command (m for help):
427     </pre>
428    
429     <p>
430     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
431     printout:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
435     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
436    
437     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
438     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
439     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
440    
441     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
442 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
443 swift 1.1
444     Command (m for help):
445     </pre>
446     </body>
447     </subsection>
448     <subsection>
449     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
454     a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
455     partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
456 swift 1.2 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
457 swift 1.1 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
458     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
459     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
460     partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
461     partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
462     <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
463     </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
466     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
467    
468     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
469     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
470     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
471    
472     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
473 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
474     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
475 swift 1.1
476     Command (m for help):
477     </pre>
478    
479     </body>
480     </subsection>
481     <subsection>
482     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
483     <body>
484    
485     <p>
486     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
487     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
488     primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
489     partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
490     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
491     enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
492     space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
493     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
494     </p>
495    
496     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
497     Command (m for help): p
498    
499     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
500     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
501     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
502    
503     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
504 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
505     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
506     /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
507 swift 1.1
508     Command (m for help):
509     </pre>
510     </body>
511     </subsection>
512     <subsection>
513     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
514     <body>
515    
516     <p>
517     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
518     </p>
519    
520     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
521     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
522     </pre>
523    
524     <p>
525     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
526     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
527     </p>
528    
529     </body>
530     </subsection>
531 neysx 1.11 </section>
532     <section id="filesystems">
533     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
534     <subsection>
535     <title>Introduction</title>
536     <body>
537    
538     <p>
539     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
540     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
541     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
542     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
543     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
544     </p>
545    
546     </body>
547     </subsection>
548 swift 1.1 <subsection>
549     <title>Filesystems?</title>
550     <body>
551    
552     <note>
553     Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the
554     PPC64 architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is
555     unsupported.
556     </note>
557    
558     <p>
559     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
560     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
561     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
562     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
563     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
564     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
565     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
566     </p>
567    
568     <p>
569     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
570     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
571     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
572     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
573     high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
574     filesystem.
575     </p>
576    
577     <p>
578     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
579     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
580     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
581     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
582     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
583     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
584     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
585     </p>
586    
587     <p>
588     <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
589     under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
590     is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
591     systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
592     power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
593     designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
594     to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
595     system goes down unexpectedly.
596     </p>
597    
598     <p>
599     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
600     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
601     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
602     </p>
603    
604     </body>
605     </subsection>
606     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
607     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
608     <body>
609    
610     <p>
611     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
612     each possible filesystem:
613     </p>
614    
615     <table>
616     <tr>
617     <th>Filesystem</th>
618     <th>Creation Command</th>
619     </tr>
620     <tr>
621     <ti>ext2</ti>
622     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
623     </tr>
624     <tr>
625     <ti>ext3</ti>
626     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
627     </tr>
628     <tr>
629     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
630     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
631     </tr>
632     <tr>
633     <ti>xfs</ti>
634     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
635     </tr>
636     <tr>
637     <ti>jfs</ti>
638     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
639     </tr>
640     </table>
641    
642     <p>
643     For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
644     in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
645     </p>
646    
647     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
648     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
649     </pre>
650    
651     <p>
652     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
653     volumes).
654     </p>
655    
656     </body>
657     </subsection>
658     <subsection>
659     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
660     <body>
661    
662     <p>
663     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
664     </p>
665    
666     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
667     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
668     </pre>
669    
670     <p>
671     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
672     </p>
673    
674     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
675     # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
676     </pre>
677    
678     <p>
679     Create and activate the swap now.
680     </p>
681    
682     </body>
683     </subsection>
684     </section>
685     <section>
686     <title>Mounting</title>
687     <body>
688    
689     <p>
690     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
691     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
692     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
693     example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
694     </p>
695    
696     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
697     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
698     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
699     </pre>
700    
701     <note>
702     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
703     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
704     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
705     </note>
706    
707     <p>
708     Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
709     needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
710     the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
711     </p>
712    
713     <pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
714     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
715     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
716     </pre>
717    
718     <p>
719     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
720     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
721     </p>
722    
723     <p>
724     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
725     Installation Files</uri>.
726     </p>
727    
728     </body>
729     </section>
730     </sections>

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