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Adding information on ext3-mounting issue. I mistakenly took the issue for resolved for the network-based installation instructions, but that is not true for the mount-command on the installation cd, only for those in the installed environment

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.17 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.16 2005/03/28 11:30:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.8
11 swift 1.17 <version>2.1</version>
12 swift 1.16 <date>2005-03-28</date>
13 swift 1.8
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32     drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
33     <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
38     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
39     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
40     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
41     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
42     </p>
43    
44     </body>
45     </subsection>
46     <subsection>
47     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
48     <body>
49    
50     <p>
51     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
52     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
53     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
54     these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
55     called <e>slices</e>.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </subsection>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
63     <subsection>
64     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
69     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
70     </p>
71    
72     <table>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Partition</th>
75     <th>Filesystem</th>
76     <th>Size</th>
77     <th>Description</th>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
81     <ti>Partition map</ti>
82     <ti>31.5k</ti>
83     <ti>Partition map</ti>
84     </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
87     <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
88     <ti>800k</ti>
89     <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
93     <ti>(swap)</ti>
94     <ti>512M</ti>
95     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98     <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
99     <ti>ext3</ti>
100     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
101     <ti>Root partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     </table>
104    
105     <note>
106     There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
107     Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
108     Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
109     delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
110 sejo 1.7 You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
111 swift 1.1 </note>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
115     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
116     <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
117     Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
118     your Disk</uri>
119     </p>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
129     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
130     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
131     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
132     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
133     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
134     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
135     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
136     security and backups.
137     </p>
138    
139     <p>
140     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
141     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
142     </p>
143    
144     <ul>
145     <li>
146 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
147 swift 1.1 </li>
148     <li>
149     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
150     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
151     </li>
152     <li>
153     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
154     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
155     it is with multiple partitions)
156     </li>
157     <li>
158     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
159     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
160     </li>
161     </ul>
162    
163     <p>
164     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
165     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
166 swift 1.4 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
167 swift 1.6 limit for SCSI and SATA.
168 swift 1.1 </p>
169    
170     </body>
171     </subsection>
172     </section>
173     <section id="mac-fdisk">
174     <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) Partition your Disk</title>
175     <body>
176    
177     <p>
178     At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
182 swift 1.2 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
183 swift 1.1 </pre>
184    
185     <p>
186     First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
187     Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
188     It will ask for the partition number to delete.
189     </p>
190    
191     <p>
192     Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
193     ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
194 swift 1.14 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
195 swift 1.1 </p>
196    
197     <note>
198     This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
199     you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
200 neysx 1.12 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
201 swift 1.1 </note>
202    
203     <p>
204     Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
205 swift 1.14 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
206 swift 1.1 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
207 swift 1.14 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
208     you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
209 swift 1.1 </p>
210    
211     <p>
212 swift 1.14 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
213 swift 1.1 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
214 swift 1.14 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
215 swift 1.1 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
216     </p>
217    
218     <p>
219     To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
220     quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
221     </p>
222 sejo 1.7
223     <note>
224     To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there.
225     If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk.
226     Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
227     </note>
228    
229 swift 1.1 <p>
230     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
231     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
232     </p>
233    
234     </body>
235     </section>
236     <section id="fdisk">
237     <title>IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
238     <subsection>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
243     described previously, namely:
244     </p>
245    
246     <table>
247     <tr>
248     <th>Partition</th>
249     <th>Description</th>
250     </tr>
251     <tr>
252     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
253     <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
254     </tr>
255     <tr>
256     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
257     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
258     </tr>
259     <tr>
260     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
261     <ti>Root partition</ti>
262     </tr>
263     </table>
264    
265     <p>
266 neysx 1.5 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
267 swift 1.1 </p>
268    
269     </body>
270     </subsection>
271     <subsection>
272     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
273     <body>
274    
275     <p>
276     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
277     partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
278     use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
279     </p>
280    
281     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
282     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
283     </pre>
284    
285     <p>
286     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
287     this:
288     </p>
289    
290     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
291     Command (m for help):
292     </pre>
293    
294     <p>
295     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
296     </p>
297    
298     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
299     Command (m for help): p
300    
301     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
302     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
303     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
304    
305     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
306 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
307     /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
308     /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
309     /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
310     /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
311     /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
312     /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
313     /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
314 swift 1.1
315     Command (m for help):
316     </pre>
317    
318     <p>
319 neysx 1.11 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
320 swift 1.1 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
321     swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
322     </p>
323    
324     </body>
325     </subsection>
326     <subsection>
327     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
328     <body>
329    
330     <p>
331     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
332     <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
333     <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
334     </p>
335    
336 neysx 1.11 <note>
337     If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
338 swift 1.1 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
339     data to avoid the lose of it.
340     </note>
341    
342     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
343     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
344     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
349     if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
350     been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
351     changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
352     not be deleted.
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
357     your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
358     and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
359     Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
360     </p>
361    
362     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
363     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
364     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
365     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
366    
367     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
368    
369     Command (m for help):
370     </pre>
371    
372     <p>
373     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
374     the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
375     previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
376     you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
377     </p>
378    
379     </body>
380     </subsection>
381     <subsection>
382     <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
387     partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
388     <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
389     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
390     <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
391     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
392     partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
393     partition type to "PPC PReP Boot".
394     </p>
395    
396     <note>
397     The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
398     </note>
399    
400     <pre caption="Crating to PReP boot partition">
401     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
402    
403     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
404     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
405     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
406    
407     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
408    
409     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
410     Command action
411     e extended
412     p primary partition (1-4)
413     <i>p</i>
414     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
415     First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
416     Using default value 1
417     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
418     6761): <i>+8M</i>
419    
420     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
421     Selected partition 1
422     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
423     Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
424    
425     Command (m for help):
426     </pre>
427    
428     <p>
429     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
430     printout:
431     </p>
432    
433     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
434     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
435    
436     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
437     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
438     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
439    
440     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
441 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
442 swift 1.1
443     Command (m for help):
444     </pre>
445     </body>
446     </subsection>
447     <subsection>
448     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
449     <body>
450    
451     <p>
452     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
453     a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
454     partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
455 swift 1.2 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
456 swift 1.1 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
457     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
458     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
459     partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
460     partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
461     <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
462     </p>
463    
464     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
465     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
466    
467     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
468     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
469     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
470    
471     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
472 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
473     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
474 swift 1.1
475     Command (m for help):
476     </pre>
477    
478     </body>
479     </subsection>
480     <subsection>
481     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
482     <body>
483    
484     <p>
485     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
486     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
487     primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
488     partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
489     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
490     enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
491     space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
492     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
493     </p>
494    
495     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
496     Command (m for help): p
497    
498     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
499     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
500     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
501    
502     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
503 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
504     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
505     /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
506 swift 1.1
507     Command (m for help):
508     </pre>
509     </body>
510     </subsection>
511     <subsection>
512     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
513     <body>
514    
515     <p>
516     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
517     </p>
518    
519     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
520     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
521     </pre>
522    
523     <p>
524     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
525     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
526     </p>
527    
528     </body>
529     </subsection>
530 neysx 1.11 </section>
531     <section id="filesystems">
532     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
533     <subsection>
534     <title>Introduction</title>
535     <body>
536    
537     <p>
538     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
539     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
540     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
541     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
542     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
543     </p>
544    
545     </body>
546     </subsection>
547 swift 1.1 <subsection>
548     <title>Filesystems?</title>
549     <body>
550    
551     <note>
552     Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the
553     PPC64 architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is
554     unsupported.
555     </note>
556    
557     <p>
558     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
559     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
560     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
561     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
562     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
563     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
564     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
565     </p>
566    
567     <p>
568     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
569     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
570     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
571     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
572     high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
573     filesystem.
574     </p>
575    
576     <p>
577     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
578     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
579     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
580     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
581     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
582     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
583     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
584     </p>
585    
586     <p>
587     <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
588     under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
589     is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
590     systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
591     power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
592     designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
593     to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
594     system goes down unexpectedly.
595     </p>
596    
597     <p>
598     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
599     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
600     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
601     </p>
602    
603     </body>
604     </subsection>
605     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
606     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
607     <body>
608    
609     <p>
610     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
611     each possible filesystem:
612     </p>
613    
614     <table>
615     <tr>
616     <th>Filesystem</th>
617     <th>Creation Command</th>
618     </tr>
619     <tr>
620     <ti>ext2</ti>
621     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
622     </tr>
623     <tr>
624     <ti>ext3</ti>
625     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
626     </tr>
627     <tr>
628     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
629     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
630     </tr>
631     <tr>
632     <ti>xfs</ti>
633     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
634     </tr>
635     <tr>
636     <ti>jfs</ti>
637     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
638     </tr>
639     </table>
640    
641     <p>
642     For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
643     in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
644     </p>
645    
646     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
647     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
648     </pre>
649    
650     <p>
651     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
652     volumes).
653     </p>
654    
655     </body>
656     </subsection>
657     <subsection>
658     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
659     <body>
660    
661     <p>
662     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
663     </p>
664    
665     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
666     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
667     </pre>
668    
669     <p>
670     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
671     </p>
672    
673     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
674     # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
675     </pre>
676    
677     <p>
678 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
679 swift 1.1 </p>
680    
681     </body>
682     </subsection>
683     </section>
684     <section>
685     <title>Mounting</title>
686     <body>
687    
688     <p>
689     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
690     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
691     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
692     example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
693     </p>
694    
695 swift 1.17 <warn>
696     Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
697     the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
698     </warn>
699    
700 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
701     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
702     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
703     </pre>
704    
705     <note>
706     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
707     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
708     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
709     </note>
710    
711     <p>
712     Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
713     needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
714 swift 1.16 the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the Installation CD:
715 swift 1.1 </p>
716    
717     <pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
718     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
719     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
720     </pre>
721    
722     <p>
723     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
724     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
725     </p>
726    
727     <p>
728     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
729     Installation Files</uri>.
730     </p>
731    
732     </body>
733     </section>
734     </sections>

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