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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.18 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.17 2005/03/28 18:38:18 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.8
11 swift 1.18 <version>2.2</version>
12     <date>2005-04-20</date>
13 swift 1.8
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32     drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
33     <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
38     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
39     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
40     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
41     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
42     </p>
43    
44     </body>
45     </subsection>
46     <subsection>
47     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
48     <body>
49    
50     <p>
51     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
52     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
53     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
54     these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
55     called <e>slices</e>.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </subsection>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
63     <subsection>
64     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
69     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
70     </p>
71    
72     <table>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Partition</th>
75     <th>Filesystem</th>
76     <th>Size</th>
77     <th>Description</th>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
81     <ti>Partition map</ti>
82     <ti>31.5k</ti>
83     <ti>Partition map</ti>
84     </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
87     <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
88     <ti>800k</ti>
89     <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
93     <ti>(swap)</ti>
94     <ti>512M</ti>
95     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98     <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
99     <ti>ext3</ti>
100     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
101     <ti>Root partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     </table>
104    
105     <note>
106     There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
107     Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
108     Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
109     delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
110 sejo 1.7 You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
111 swift 1.1 </note>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
115     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
116     <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
117     Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
118     your Disk</uri>
119     </p>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
129     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
130     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
131     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
132     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
133     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
134     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
135     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
136     security and backups.
137     </p>
138    
139     <p>
140     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
141     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
142     </p>
143    
144     <ul>
145     <li>
146 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
147 swift 1.1 </li>
148     <li>
149     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
150     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
151     </li>
152     <li>
153     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
154     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
155     it is with multiple partitions)
156     </li>
157     <li>
158     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
159     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
160     </li>
161     </ul>
162    
163     <p>
164     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
165     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
166 swift 1.4 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
167 swift 1.6 limit for SCSI and SATA.
168 swift 1.1 </p>
169    
170     </body>
171     </subsection>
172     </section>
173     <section id="mac-fdisk">
174     <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) Partition your Disk</title>
175     <body>
176    
177     <p>
178     At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
182 swift 1.2 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
183 swift 1.1 </pre>
184    
185     <p>
186     First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
187     Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
188     It will ask for the partition number to delete.
189     </p>
190    
191     <p>
192     Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
193     ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
194 swift 1.14 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
195 swift 1.1 </p>
196    
197     <note>
198     This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
199     you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
200 neysx 1.12 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
201 swift 1.1 </note>
202    
203     <p>
204     Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
205 swift 1.14 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
206 swift 1.1 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
207 swift 1.14 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
208     you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
209 swift 1.1 </p>
210    
211     <p>
212 swift 1.14 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
213 swift 1.1 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
214 swift 1.14 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
215 swift 1.1 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
216     </p>
217    
218     <p>
219     To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
220     quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
221     </p>
222 sejo 1.7
223     <note>
224     To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there.
225     If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk.
226     Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
227     </note>
228    
229 swift 1.1 <p>
230     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
231     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
232     </p>
233    
234     </body>
235     </section>
236     <section id="fdisk">
237 swift 1.18 <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
238 swift 1.1 <subsection>
239     <body>
240    
241 swift 1.18 <note>
242     If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your gentoo installation and
243     you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprutils</c> to
244     format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array.
245     </note>
246    
247 swift 1.1 <p>
248     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
249     described previously, namely:
250     </p>
251    
252     <table>
253     <tr>
254     <th>Partition</th>
255     <th>Description</th>
256     </tr>
257     <tr>
258     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
259     <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
260     </tr>
261     <tr>
262     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
263     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
264     </tr>
265     <tr>
266     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
267     <ti>Root partition</ti>
268     </tr>
269     </table>
270    
271     <p>
272 neysx 1.5 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
273 swift 1.1 </p>
274    
275     </body>
276     </subsection>
277     <subsection>
278     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
279     <body>
280    
281     <p>
282     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
283     partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
284     use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
285     </p>
286    
287     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
288     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
289     </pre>
290    
291     <p>
292     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
293     this:
294     </p>
295    
296     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
297     Command (m for help):
298     </pre>
299    
300     <p>
301     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
302     </p>
303    
304     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
305     Command (m for help): p
306    
307     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
308     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
309     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
310    
311     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
312 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
313     /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
314     /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
315     /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
316     /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
317     /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
318     /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
319     /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
320 swift 1.1
321     Command (m for help):
322     </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325 neysx 1.11 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
326 swift 1.1 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
327     swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
328     </p>
329    
330     </body>
331     </subsection>
332     <subsection>
333     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
334     <body>
335    
336     <p>
337     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
338     <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
339     <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
340     </p>
341    
342 neysx 1.11 <note>
343     If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
344 swift 1.1 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
345     data to avoid the lose of it.
346     </note>
347    
348     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
349     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
350     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
351     </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
355     if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
356     been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
357     changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
358     not be deleted.
359     </p>
360    
361     <p>
362     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
363     your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
364     and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
365     Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
366     </p>
367    
368     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
369     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
370     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
371     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
372    
373     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
374    
375     Command (m for help):
376     </pre>
377    
378     <p>
379     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
380     the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
381     previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
382     you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
383     </p>
384    
385     </body>
386     </subsection>
387     <subsection>
388     <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
389     <body>
390    
391     <p>
392     We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
393     partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
394     <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
395     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
396     <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
397     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
398     partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
399 swift 1.18 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
400     partition as bootable.
401 swift 1.1 </p>
402    
403     <note>
404     The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
405     </note>
406    
407 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
408 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
409    
410     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
411     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
412     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
413    
414     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
415    
416     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
417     Command action
418     e extended
419     p primary partition (1-4)
420     <i>p</i>
421     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
422     First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
423     Using default value 1
424     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
425     6761): <i>+8M</i>
426    
427     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
428     Selected partition 1
429     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
430     Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
431    
432 swift 1.18 Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
433     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
434 swift 1.1 Command (m for help):
435     </pre>
436    
437     <p>
438 swift 1.18 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
439 swift 1.1 </p>
440    
441     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
442     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
443    
444     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
445     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
446     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
447    
448     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
449 swift 1.18 /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
450 swift 1.1
451     Command (m for help):
452     </pre>
453     </body>
454     </subsection>
455     <subsection>
456     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
457     <body>
458    
459     <p>
460     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
461     a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
462     partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
463 swift 1.2 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
464 swift 1.1 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
465     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
466     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
467     partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
468     partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
469     <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
470     </p>
471    
472     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
473     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
474    
475     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
476     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
477     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
478    
479     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
480 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
481     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
482 swift 1.1
483     Command (m for help):
484     </pre>
485    
486     </body>
487     </subsection>
488     <subsection>
489     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
490     <body>
491    
492     <p>
493     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
494     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
495     primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
496     partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
497     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
498     enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
499     space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
500     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
501     </p>
502    
503     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
504     Command (m for help): p
505    
506     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
507     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
508     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
509    
510     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
511 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
512     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
513     /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
514 swift 1.1
515     Command (m for help):
516     </pre>
517     </body>
518     </subsection>
519     <subsection>
520     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
521     <body>
522    
523     <p>
524     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
525     </p>
526    
527     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
528     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
529     </pre>
530    
531     <p>
532     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
533     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
534     </p>
535    
536     </body>
537     </subsection>
538 neysx 1.11 </section>
539     <section id="filesystems">
540     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
541     <subsection>
542     <title>Introduction</title>
543     <body>
544    
545     <p>
546     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
547     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
548     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
549     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
550     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
551     </p>
552    
553     </body>
554     </subsection>
555 swift 1.1 <subsection>
556     <title>Filesystems?</title>
557     <body>
558    
559     <note>
560     Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the
561     PPC64 architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is
562     unsupported.
563     </note>
564    
565     <p>
566     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
567     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
568     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
569     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
570     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
571     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
572     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
573     </p>
574    
575     <p>
576     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
577     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
578     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
579     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
580     high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
581     filesystem.
582     </p>
583    
584     <p>
585     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
586     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
587     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
588     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
589     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
590     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
591     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
592     </p>
593    
594     <p>
595     <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
596     under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
597     is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
598     systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
599     power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
600     designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
601     to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
602     system goes down unexpectedly.
603     </p>
604    
605     <p>
606     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
607     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
608     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
609     </p>
610    
611     </body>
612     </subsection>
613     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
614     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
615     <body>
616    
617     <p>
618     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
619     each possible filesystem:
620     </p>
621    
622     <table>
623     <tr>
624     <th>Filesystem</th>
625     <th>Creation Command</th>
626     </tr>
627     <tr>
628     <ti>ext2</ti>
629     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
630     </tr>
631     <tr>
632     <ti>ext3</ti>
633     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
634     </tr>
635     <tr>
636     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
637     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
638     </tr>
639     <tr>
640     <ti>xfs</ti>
641     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
642     </tr>
643     <tr>
644     <ti>jfs</ti>
645     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
646     </tr>
647     </table>
648    
649     <p>
650     For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
651     in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
652     </p>
653    
654     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
655     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
656     </pre>
657    
658     <p>
659     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
660     volumes).
661     </p>
662    
663     </body>
664     </subsection>
665     <subsection>
666     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
667     <body>
668    
669     <p>
670     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
671     </p>
672    
673     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
674     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
675     </pre>
676    
677     <p>
678     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
679     </p>
680    
681     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
682     # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
683     </pre>
684    
685     <p>
686 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
687 swift 1.1 </p>
688    
689     </body>
690     </subsection>
691     </section>
692     <section>
693     <title>Mounting</title>
694     <body>
695    
696     <p>
697     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
698     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
699     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
700     example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
701     </p>
702    
703 swift 1.17 <warn>
704     Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
705     the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
706     </warn>
707    
708 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
709     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
710     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
711     </pre>
712    
713     <note>
714     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
715     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
716     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
717     </note>
718    
719     <p>
720     Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
721     needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
722 swift 1.16 the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the Installation CD:
723 swift 1.1 </p>
724    
725     <pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
726     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
727     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
728     </pre>
729    
730     <p>
731     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
732     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
733     </p>
734    
735     <p>
736     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
737     Installation Files</uri>.
738     </p>
739    
740     </body>
741     </section>
742     </sections>

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