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#101034 - Adding "-O dir_index" information to the guide

Leaving it out of the real example mke2fs command to "stage" it. When we know
more about this b-tree stability and architectural support we can follow the
SPARC handbook and use it by default.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.19 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.20 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.19 2005/06/10 18:15:33 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.8
11 swift 1.20 <version>2.4</version>
12     <date>2005-08-02</date>
13 swift 1.8
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32     drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
33     <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
38     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
39     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
40     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
41     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
42     </p>
43    
44     </body>
45     </subsection>
46     <subsection>
47     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
48     <body>
49    
50     <p>
51     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
52     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
53     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
54     these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
55     called <e>slices</e>.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </subsection>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
63     <subsection>
64     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
69     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
70     </p>
71    
72     <table>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Partition</th>
75     <th>Filesystem</th>
76     <th>Size</th>
77     <th>Description</th>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
81     <ti>Partition map</ti>
82     <ti>31.5k</ti>
83     <ti>Partition map</ti>
84     </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
87     <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
88     <ti>800k</ti>
89     <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
93     <ti>(swap)</ti>
94     <ti>512M</ti>
95     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98     <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
99     <ti>ext3</ti>
100     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
101     <ti>Root partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     </table>
104    
105     <note>
106     There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
107     Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
108     Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
109     delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
110 sejo 1.7 You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
111 swift 1.1 </note>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
115     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
116     <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
117     Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
118     your Disk</uri>
119     </p>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
129     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
130     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
131     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
132     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
133     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
134     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
135     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
136 swift 1.19 security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
137     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
138     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
139 swift 1.1 </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
143     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
144     </p>
145    
146     <ul>
147     <li>
148 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
149 swift 1.1 </li>
150     <li>
151     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
152     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
153     </li>
154     <li>
155     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
156     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
157     it is with multiple partitions)
158     </li>
159     <li>
160     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
161     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
162     </li>
163     </ul>
164    
165     <p>
166     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
167     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
168 swift 1.4 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
169 swift 1.6 limit for SCSI and SATA.
170 swift 1.1 </p>
171    
172     </body>
173     </subsection>
174     </section>
175     <section id="mac-fdisk">
176     <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) Partition your Disk</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180     At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
184 swift 1.2 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
185 swift 1.1 </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
189     Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
190     It will ask for the partition number to delete.
191     </p>
192    
193     <p>
194     Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
195     ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
196 swift 1.14 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
197 swift 1.1 </p>
198    
199     <note>
200     This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
201     you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
202 neysx 1.12 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
203 swift 1.1 </note>
204    
205     <p>
206     Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
207 swift 1.14 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
208 swift 1.1 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
209 swift 1.14 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
210     you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
211 swift 1.1 </p>
212    
213     <p>
214 swift 1.14 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
215 swift 1.1 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
216 swift 1.14 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
217 swift 1.1 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
218     </p>
219    
220     <p>
221     To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
222     quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
223     </p>
224 sejo 1.7
225     <note>
226     To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there.
227     If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk.
228     Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
229     </note>
230    
231 swift 1.1 <p>
232     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
233     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
234     </p>
235    
236     </body>
237     </section>
238     <section id="fdisk">
239 swift 1.18 <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
240 swift 1.1 <subsection>
241     <body>
242    
243 swift 1.18 <note>
244     If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your gentoo installation and
245     you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprutils</c> to
246     format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array.
247     </note>
248    
249 swift 1.1 <p>
250     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
251     described previously, namely:
252     </p>
253    
254     <table>
255     <tr>
256     <th>Partition</th>
257     <th>Description</th>
258     </tr>
259     <tr>
260     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
261     <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
262     </tr>
263     <tr>
264     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
265     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
266     </tr>
267     <tr>
268     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
269     <ti>Root partition</ti>
270     </tr>
271     </table>
272    
273     <p>
274 neysx 1.5 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
275 swift 1.1 </p>
276    
277     </body>
278     </subsection>
279     <subsection>
280     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
281     <body>
282    
283     <p>
284     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
285     partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
286     use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
287     </p>
288    
289     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
290     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
291     </pre>
292    
293     <p>
294     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
295     this:
296     </p>
297    
298     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
299     Command (m for help):
300     </pre>
301    
302     <p>
303     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
304     </p>
305    
306     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
307     Command (m for help): p
308    
309     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
310     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
311     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
312    
313     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
314 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
315     /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
316     /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
317     /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
318     /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
319     /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
320     /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
321     /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
322 swift 1.1
323     Command (m for help):
324     </pre>
325    
326     <p>
327 neysx 1.11 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
328 swift 1.1 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
329     swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
330     </p>
331    
332     </body>
333     </subsection>
334     <subsection>
335     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
336     <body>
337    
338     <p>
339     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
340     <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
341     <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
342     </p>
343    
344 neysx 1.11 <note>
345     If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
346 swift 1.1 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
347     data to avoid the lose of it.
348     </note>
349    
350     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
351     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
352     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
353     </pre>
354    
355     <p>
356     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
357     if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
358     been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
359     changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
360     not be deleted.
361     </p>
362    
363     <p>
364     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
365     your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
366     and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
367     Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
368     </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
371     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
372     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
373     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
374    
375     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
376    
377     Command (m for help):
378     </pre>
379    
380     <p>
381     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
382     the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
383     previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
384     you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
385     </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </subsection>
389     <subsection>
390     <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
391     <body>
392    
393     <p>
394     We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
395     partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
396     <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
397     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
398     <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
399     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
400     partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
401 swift 1.18 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
402     partition as bootable.
403 swift 1.1 </p>
404    
405     <note>
406     The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
407     </note>
408    
409 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
410 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
411    
412     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
413     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
414     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
415    
416     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
417    
418     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
419     Command action
420     e extended
421     p primary partition (1-4)
422     <i>p</i>
423     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
424     First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
425     Using default value 1
426     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
427     6761): <i>+8M</i>
428    
429     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
430     Selected partition 1
431     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
432     Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
433    
434 swift 1.18 Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
435     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
436 swift 1.1 Command (m for help):
437     </pre>
438    
439     <p>
440 swift 1.18 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
441 swift 1.1 </p>
442    
443     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
444     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
445    
446     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
447     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
448     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
449    
450     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
451 swift 1.18 /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
452 swift 1.1
453     Command (m for help):
454     </pre>
455     </body>
456     </subsection>
457     <subsection>
458     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
463     a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
464     partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
465 swift 1.2 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
466 swift 1.1 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
467     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
468     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
469     partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
470     partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
471     <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
472     </p>
473    
474     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
475     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
476    
477     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
478     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
479     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
480    
481     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
482 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
483     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
484 swift 1.1
485     Command (m for help):
486     </pre>
487    
488     </body>
489     </subsection>
490     <subsection>
491     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
492     <body>
493    
494     <p>
495     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
496     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
497     primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
498     partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
499     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
500     enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
501     space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
502     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
503     </p>
504    
505     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
506     Command (m for help): p
507    
508     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
509     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
510     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
511    
512     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
513 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
514     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
515     /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
516 swift 1.1
517     Command (m for help):
518     </pre>
519     </body>
520     </subsection>
521     <subsection>
522     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
523     <body>
524    
525     <p>
526     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
527     </p>
528    
529     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
530     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
531     </pre>
532    
533     <p>
534     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
535     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
536     </p>
537    
538     </body>
539     </subsection>
540 neysx 1.11 </section>
541     <section id="filesystems">
542     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
543     <subsection>
544     <title>Introduction</title>
545     <body>
546    
547     <p>
548     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
549     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
550     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
551     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
552     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
553     </p>
554    
555     </body>
556     </subsection>
557 swift 1.1 <subsection>
558     <title>Filesystems?</title>
559     <body>
560    
561     <note>
562     Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the
563     PPC64 architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is
564     unsupported.
565     </note>
566    
567     <p>
568     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
569     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
570     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
571     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
572     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
573     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
574     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
575     </p>
576    
577     <p>
578     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
579     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
580     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
581     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
582 swift 1.20 high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
583     adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
584     excellent filesystem.
585 swift 1.1 </p>
586    
587     <p>
588     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
589     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
590     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
591     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
592     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
593     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
594     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
595     </p>
596    
597     <p>
598     <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
599     under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
600     is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
601     systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
602     power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
603     designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
604     to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
605     system goes down unexpectedly.
606     </p>
607    
608     <p>
609     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
610     become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
611     comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
612     </p>
613    
614     </body>
615     </subsection>
616     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
617     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
618     <body>
619    
620     <p>
621     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
622     each possible filesystem:
623     </p>
624    
625     <table>
626     <tr>
627     <th>Filesystem</th>
628     <th>Creation Command</th>
629     </tr>
630     <tr>
631     <ti>ext2</ti>
632     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
633     </tr>
634     <tr>
635     <ti>ext3</ti>
636     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
637     </tr>
638     <tr>
639     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
640     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
641     </tr>
642     <tr>
643     <ti>xfs</ti>
644     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
645     </tr>
646     <tr>
647     <ti>jfs</ti>
648     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
649     </tr>
650     </table>
651    
652     <p>
653     For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
654     in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
655     </p>
656    
657     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
658     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
659     </pre>
660    
661     <p>
662     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
663     volumes).
664     </p>
665    
666     </body>
667     </subsection>
668     <subsection>
669     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
670     <body>
671    
672     <p>
673     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
674     </p>
675    
676     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
677     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
678     </pre>
679    
680     <p>
681     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
682     </p>
683    
684     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
685     # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
686     </pre>
687    
688     <p>
689 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
690 swift 1.1 </p>
691    
692     </body>
693     </subsection>
694     </section>
695     <section>
696     <title>Mounting</title>
697     <body>
698    
699     <p>
700     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
701     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
702     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
703     example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
704     </p>
705    
706 swift 1.17 <warn>
707     Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
708     the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
709     </warn>
710    
711 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
712     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
713     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
714     </pre>
715    
716     <note>
717     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
718     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
719     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
720     </note>
721    
722     <p>
723     Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
724     needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
725 swift 1.16 the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the Installation CD:
726 swift 1.1 </p>
727    
728     <pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
729     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
730     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
731     </pre>
732    
733     <p>
734     We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
735     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
736     </p>
737    
738     <p>
739     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
740     Installation Files</uri>.
741     </p>
742    
743     </body>
744     </section>
745     </sections>

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