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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.19 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.29 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.18 2007/04/27 06:55:51 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.8
11 nightmorph 1.29 <version>8.0</version>
12     <date>2007-05-07</date>
13 swift 1.8
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32     drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
33     <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
38     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
39     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
40     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
41     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
42     </p>
43    
44     </body>
45     </subsection>
46     <subsection>
47     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
48     <body>
49    
50     <p>
51     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
52     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
53     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
54     these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
55     called <e>slices</e>.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </subsection>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
63     <subsection>
64     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
69     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
70     </p>
71    
72     <table>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Partition</th>
75     <th>Filesystem</th>
76     <th>Size</th>
77     <th>Description</th>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
81     <ti>Partition map</ti>
82     <ti>31.5k</ti>
83     <ti>Partition map</ti>
84     </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
87     <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
88     <ti>800k</ti>
89     <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
93     <ti>(swap)</ti>
94     <ti>512M</ti>
95     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98     <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
99     <ti>ext3</ti>
100     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
101     <ti>Root partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     </table>
104    
105     <note>
106     There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
107 nightmorph 1.29 Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If
108     you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and
109     Linux don't need them. You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as
110     mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
111 swift 1.1 </note>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
115     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
116     <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
117     Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
118     your Disk</uri>
119     </p>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
129     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
130     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
131 nightmorph 1.29 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
132     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
133     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
134     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
135     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
136     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
137     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
138     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
139 swift 1.1 </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
143     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
144     </p>
145    
146     <ul>
147     <li>
148 neysx 1.3 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
149 swift 1.1 </li>
150     <li>
151     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
152     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
153     </li>
154     <li>
155     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
156     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
157     it is with multiple partitions)
158     </li>
159     <li>
160     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
161     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
162     </li>
163     </ul>
164    
165     <p>
166 nightmorph 1.29 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
167     properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
168     partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
169     SATA.
170 swift 1.1 </p>
171    
172     </body>
173     </subsection>
174     </section>
175     <section id="mac-fdisk">
176 nightmorph 1.29 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) to Partition your Disk</title>
177 swift 1.1 <body>
178    
179     <p>
180     At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
184 swift 1.2 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
185 swift 1.1 </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
189     Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
190     It will ask for the partition number to delete.
191     </p>
192    
193     <p>
194     Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
195     ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
196 swift 1.14 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
197 swift 1.1 </p>
198    
199     <note>
200     This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
201     you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
202 neysx 1.12 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
203 swift 1.1 </note>
204    
205     <p>
206     Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
207 swift 1.14 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
208 swift 1.1 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
209 swift 1.14 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
210     you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
211 swift 1.1 </p>
212    
213     <p>
214 swift 1.14 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
215 swift 1.1 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
216 swift 1.14 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
217 swift 1.1 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
218     </p>
219    
220     <p>
221     To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
222     quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
223     </p>
224 fox2mike 1.22
225 sejo 1.7 <note>
226 fox2mike 1.22 To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
227 nightmorph 1.29 whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
228 fox2mike 1.22 created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
229 nightmorph 1.29 pressing <c>i</c> in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
230     and thus remove all your partitions.
231 sejo 1.7 </note>
232    
233 swift 1.1 <p>
234     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
235     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
236     </p>
237    
238     </body>
239     </section>
240     <section id="fdisk">
241 swift 1.18 <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
242 swift 1.1 <subsection>
243     <body>
244    
245 swift 1.18 <note>
246 nightmorph 1.29 If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your Gentoo installation and
247 fox2mike 1.24 you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprconfig</c> to
248     format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array. You
249     should emerge <c>iprutils</c> after your install is complete.
250 swift 1.18 </note>
251    
252 swift 1.1 <p>
253 nightmorph 1.29 If you have an ipr-based SCSI adapter, you should start the ipr utilities now.
254 fox2mike 1.24 </p>
255    
256     <pre caption="Starting ipr utilities">
257     # <i>/etc/init.d/iprinit start</i>
258     </pre>
259    
260     <p>
261 swift 1.1 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
262     described previously, namely:
263     </p>
264    
265     <table>
266     <tr>
267     <th>Partition</th>
268     <th>Description</th>
269     </tr>
270     <tr>
271     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
272     <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
273     </tr>
274     <tr>
275     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
276     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
277     </tr>
278     <tr>
279     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
280     <ti>Root partition</ti>
281     </tr>
282     </table>
283    
284     <p>
285 neysx 1.5 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
286 swift 1.1 </p>
287    
288     </body>
289     </subsection>
290     <subsection>
291     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
292     <body>
293    
294     <p>
295     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
296     partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
297     use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
298     </p>
299    
300     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
301     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
302     </pre>
303    
304     <p>
305     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
306     this:
307     </p>
308    
309     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
310     Command (m for help):
311     </pre>
312    
313     <p>
314 neysx 1.25 If you still have an AIX partition layout on your system, you will get the
315     following error message:
316     </p>
317    
318     <pre caption="Error message from fdisk">
319     There is a valid AIX label on this disk.
320     Unfortunately Linux cannot handle these
321     disks at the moment. Nevertheless some
322     advice:
323     1. fdisk will destroy its contents on write.
324     2. Be sure that this disk is NOT a still vital
325     part of a volume group. (Otherwise you may
326     erase the other disks as well, if unmirrored.)
327     3. Before deleting this physical volume be sure
328     to remove the disk logically from your AIX
329     machine. (Otherwise you become an AIXpert).
330    
331     Command (m for help):
332     </pre>
333    
334     <p>
335     Don't worry, you can create a new empty dos partition table by pressing
336     <c>o</c>.
337     </p>
338    
339     <warn>
340     This will destroy any installed AIX version
341     </warn>
342    
343     <p>
344     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk current partition configuration:
345 swift 1.1 </p>
346    
347     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
348     Command (m for help): p
349    
350     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
351     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
352     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
353    
354     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
355 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
356     /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
357     /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
358     /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
359     /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
360     /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
361     /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
362     /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
363 swift 1.1
364     Command (m for help):
365     </pre>
366    
367     <p>
368 neysx 1.11 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
369 swift 1.1 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
370     swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
371     </p>
372    
373     </body>
374     </subsection>
375     <subsection>
376     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
377     <body>
378    
379     <p>
380     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
381     <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
382     <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
383     </p>
384    
385 neysx 1.11 <note>
386     If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
387 swift 1.1 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
388     data to avoid the lose of it.
389     </note>
390    
391     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
392     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
393     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
394     </pre>
395    
396     <p>
397     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
398     if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
399     been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
400     changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
401     not be deleted.
402     </p>
403    
404     <p>
405     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
406     your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
407     and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
408     Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
412     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
413     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
414     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
415    
416     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
417    
418     Command (m for help):
419     </pre>
420    
421     <p>
422     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
423     the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
424     previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
425     you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
426     </p>
427    
428     </body>
429     </subsection>
430     <subsection>
431     <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
436     partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
437     <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
438     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
439     <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
440     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
441     partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
442 swift 1.18 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
443     partition as bootable.
444 swift 1.1 </p>
445    
446     <note>
447     The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
448     </note>
449    
450 swift 1.18 <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
451 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
452    
453     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
454     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
455     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
456    
457     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
458    
459     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
460     Command action
461     e extended
462     p primary partition (1-4)
463     <i>p</i>
464     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
465     First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
466     Using default value 1
467     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
468     6761): <i>+8M</i>
469    
470     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
471     Selected partition 1
472     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
473     Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
474    
475 swift 1.18 Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
476     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
477 swift 1.1 Command (m for help):
478     </pre>
479    
480     <p>
481 swift 1.18 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
482 swift 1.1 </p>
483    
484     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
485     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
486    
487     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
488     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
489     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
490    
491     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
492 swift 1.18 /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
493 swift 1.1
494     Command (m for help):
495     </pre>
496     </body>
497     </subsection>
498     <subsection>
499     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
500     <body>
501    
502     <p>
503     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
504     a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
505     partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
506 swift 1.2 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
507 swift 1.1 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
508     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
509     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
510     partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
511     partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
512     <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
513     </p>
514    
515     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
516     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
517    
518     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
519     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
520     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
521    
522     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
523 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
524     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
525 swift 1.1
526     Command (m for help):
527     </pre>
528    
529     </body>
530     </subsection>
531     <subsection>
532     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
533     <body>
534    
535     <p>
536     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
537     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
538     primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
539     partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
540     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
541     enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
542     space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
543     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
544     </p>
545    
546     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
547     Command (m for help): p
548    
549     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
550     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
551     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
552    
553     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
554 neysx 1.11 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
555     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
556     /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
557 swift 1.1
558     Command (m for help):
559     </pre>
560     </body>
561     </subsection>
562     <subsection>
563     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
564     <body>
565    
566     <p>
567     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
568     </p>
569    
570     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
571     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
572     </pre>
573    
574     <p>
575     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
576     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
577     </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </subsection>
581 neysx 1.11 </section>
582     <section id="filesystems">
583     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
584     <subsection>
585     <title>Introduction</title>
586     <body>
587    
588     <p>
589     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
590     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
591     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
592     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
593     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
594     </p>
595    
596     </body>
597     </subsection>
598 swift 1.1 <subsection>
599     <title>Filesystems?</title>
600     <body>
601    
602     <note>
603 fox2mike 1.24 Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3 and ReiserFS support is built in
604     the Installation CD kernels. JFS and XFS support is available through kernel
605     modules.
606 swift 1.1 </note>
607    
608     <p>
609     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
610     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
611     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
612     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
613     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
614     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
615     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
616     </p>
617    
618     <p>
619     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
620 nightmorph 1.27 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
621     like full data and ordered data journaling. It uses a hashed B*-tree index that
622     enables high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very
623     good and reliable filesystem.
624 swift 1.1 </p>
625    
626     <p>
627 nightmorph 1.27 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
628     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
629     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
630     extremely well and has metadata journaling. ReiserFS is solid and usable as
631     both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of
632     large filesystems, very large files and directories containing tens of
633     thousands of small files.
634 swift 1.1 </p>
635    
636     <p>
637     <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
638     under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
639     is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
640     systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
641     power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
642     designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
643     to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
644     system goes down unexpectedly.
645     </p>
646    
647     <p>
648     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
649 nightmorph 1.29 become production-ready.
650 swift 1.1 </p>
651    
652     </body>
653     </subsection>
654     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
655     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
656     <body>
657    
658     <p>
659     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
660     each possible filesystem:
661     </p>
662    
663     <table>
664     <tr>
665     <th>Filesystem</th>
666     <th>Creation Command</th>
667     </tr>
668     <tr>
669     <ti>ext2</ti>
670     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
671     </tr>
672     <tr>
673     <ti>ext3</ti>
674     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
675     </tr>
676     <tr>
677     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
678     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
679     </tr>
680     <tr>
681     <ti>xfs</ti>
682     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
683     </tr>
684     <tr>
685     <ti>jfs</ti>
686     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
687     </tr>
688     </table>
689    
690     <p>
691     For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
692     in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
693     </p>
694    
695     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
696 nightmorph 1.29 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
697 swift 1.1 </pre>
698    
699     <p>
700     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
701     volumes).
702     </p>
703    
704     </body>
705     </subsection>
706     <subsection>
707     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
708     <body>
709    
710     <p>
711     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
712     </p>
713    
714     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
715     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
716     </pre>
717    
718     <p>
719     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
720     </p>
721    
722     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
723     # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
724     </pre>
725    
726     <p>
727 swift 1.15 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
728 swift 1.1 </p>
729    
730     </body>
731     </subsection>
732     </section>
733     <section>
734     <title>Mounting</title>
735     <body>
736    
737     <p>
738     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
739     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
740     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
741 nightmorph 1.29 example we create a mount point and mount the root partition:
742 swift 1.1 </p>
743    
744     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
745     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
746     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
747     </pre>
748    
749     <note>
750     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
751     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
752     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
753     </note>
754    
755     <p>
756     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
757     Installation Files</uri>.
758     </p>
759    
760     </body>
761     </section>
762     </sections>

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