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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.33 2008/04/01 08:53:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>9.0</version>
12 <date>2008-04-01</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16
17 <subsection>
18 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 </subsection>
20
21 <subsection>
22 <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p>
26 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
27 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
29 these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
30 called <e>slices</e>.
31 </p>
32
33 </body>
34 </subsection>
35 </section>
36 <section>
37 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
38 <subsection>
39 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
40 <body>
41
42 <p>
43 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
44 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
45 </p>
46
47 <table>
48 <tr>
49 <th>Partition</th>
50 <th>Filesystem</th>
51 <th>Size</th>
52 <th>Description</th>
53 </tr>
54 <tr>
55 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
56 <ti>Partition map</ti>
57 <ti>31.5k</ti>
58 <ti>Partition map</ti>
59 </tr>
60 <tr>
61 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
62 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
63 <ti>800k</ti>
64 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
65 </tr>
66 <tr>
67 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
68 <ti>(swap)</ti>
69 <ti>512M</ti>
70 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
71 </tr>
72 <tr>
73 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
74 <ti>ext3</ti>
75 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
76 <ti>Root partition</ti>
77 </tr>
78 </table>
79
80 <note>
81 There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43</path>,
82 <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>, <path>Apple_FWDriver</path>,
83 <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and <path>Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
84 planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
85 need them. You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk
86 can't delete them yet.
87 </note>
88
89 <p>
90 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
91 many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
92 <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
93 Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
94 your Disk</uri>
95 </p>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 <subsection>
100 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
105 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
106 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
107 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
108 should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
109 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
110 a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
111 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
112 definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
113 majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
114 excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
115 </p>
116
117 <p>
118 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
119 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
120 </p>
121
122 <ul>
123 <li>
124 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
128 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
132 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
133 it is with multiple partitions)
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
137 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
138 </li>
139 </ul>
140
141 <p>
142 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
143 properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
144 partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
145 SATA.
146 </p>
147
148 </body>
149 </subsection>
150 </section>
151 <section id="mac-fdisk">
152 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) to Partition your Disk</title>
153 <body>
154
155 <p>
156 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
160 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
161 </pre>
162
163 <p>
164 First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
165 Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
166 It will ask for the partition number to delete.
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
171 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
172 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
173 </p>
174
175 <note>
176 This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
177 you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
178 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
179 </note>
180
181 <p>
182 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
183 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
184 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
185 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
186 you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
187 </p>
188
189 <p>
190 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
191 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
192 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
193 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
194 </p>
195
196 <p>
197 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
198 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
199 </p>
200
201 <note>
202 To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
203 whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
204 created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
205 pressing <c>i</c> in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
206 and thus remove all your partitions.
207 </note>
208
209 <p>
210 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
211 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
212 </p>
213
214 </body>
215 </section>
216 <section id="fdisk">
217 <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
218 <subsection>
219 <body>
220
221 <note>
222 If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your Gentoo installation and
223 you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprconfig</c> to
224 format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array. You
225 should emerge <c>iprutils</c> after your install is complete.
226 </note>
227
228 <p>
229 If you have an ipr-based SCSI adapter, you should start the ipr utilities now.
230 </p>
231
232 <pre caption="Starting ipr utilities">
233 # <i>/etc/init.d/iprinit start</i>
234 </pre>
235
236 <p>
237 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
238 described previously, namely:
239 </p>
240
241 <table>
242 <tr>
243 <th>Partition</th>
244 <th>Description</th>
245 </tr>
246 <tr>
247 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
248 <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
249 </tr>
250 <tr>
251 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
252 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
253 </tr>
254 <tr>
255 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
256 <ti>Root partition</ti>
257 </tr>
258 </table>
259
260 <p>
261 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </subsection>
266 <subsection>
267 <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
272 partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
273 use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
274 </p>
275
276 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
277 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
282 this:
283 </p>
284
285 <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
286 Command (m for help):
287 </pre>
288
289 <p>
290 If you still have an AIX partition layout on your system, you will get the
291 following error message:
292 </p>
293
294 <pre caption="Error message from fdisk">
295 There is a valid AIX label on this disk.
296 Unfortunately Linux cannot handle these
297 disks at the moment. Nevertheless some
298 advice:
299 1. fdisk will destroy its contents on write.
300 2. Be sure that this disk is NOT a still vital
301 part of a volume group. (Otherwise you may
302 erase the other disks as well, if unmirrored.)
303 3. Before deleting this physical volume be sure
304 to remove the disk logically from your AIX
305 machine. (Otherwise you become an AIXpert).
306
307 Command (m for help):
308 </pre>
309
310 <p>
311 Don't worry, you can create a new empty dos partition table by pressing
312 <c>o</c>.
313 </p>
314
315 <warn>
316 This will destroy any installed AIX version
317 </warn>
318
319 <p>
320 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk current partition configuration:
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
324 Command (m for help): p
325
326 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
327 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
328 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
329
330 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
331 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
332 /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
333 /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
334 /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
335 /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
336 /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
337 /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
338 /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
339
340 Command (m for help):
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
345 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
346 swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
347 </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </subsection>
351 <subsection>
352 <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
357 <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
358 <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
359 </p>
360
361 <note>
362 If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
363 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
364 data to avoid the lose of it.
365 </note>
366
367 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
368 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
369 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
374 if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
375 been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
376 changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
377 not be deleted.
378 </p>
379
380 <p>
381 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
382 your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
383 and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
384 Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
388 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
389 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
390 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
391
392 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
393
394 Command (m for help):
395 </pre>
396
397 <p>
398 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
399 the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
400 previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
401 you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
402 </p>
403
404 </body>
405 </subsection>
406 <subsection>
407 <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
408 <body>
409
410 <p>
411 We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
412 partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
413 <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
414 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
415 <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
416 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
417 partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
418 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
419 partition as bootable.
420 </p>
421
422 <note>
423 The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
424 </note>
425
426 <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
427 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
428
429 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
430 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
431 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
432
433 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
434
435 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
436 Command action
437 e extended
438 p primary partition (1-4)
439 <i>p</i>
440 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
441 First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
442 Using default value 1
443 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
444 6761): <i>+8M</i>
445
446 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
447 Selected partition 1
448 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
449 Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
450
451 Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
452 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
453 Command (m for help):
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Created boot partition">
461 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
462
463 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
464 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
465 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
466
467 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
468 /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
469
470 Command (m for help):
471 </pre>
472 </body>
473 </subsection>
474 <subsection>
475 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
476 <body>
477
478 <p>
479 Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
480 a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
481 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
482 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
483 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
484 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
485 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
486 partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
487 partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
488 <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
489 </p>
490
491 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
492 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
493
494 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
495 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
496 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
497
498 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
499 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
500 /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
501
502 Command (m for help):
503 </pre>
504
505 </body>
506 </subsection>
507 <subsection>
508 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
509 <body>
510
511 <p>
512 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
513 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
514 primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
515 partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
516 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
517 enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
518 space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
519 display a partition table that looks similar to this:
520 </p>
521
522 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
523 Command (m for help): p
524
525 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
526 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
527 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
528
529 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
530 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
531 /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
532 /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
533
534 Command (m for help):
535 </pre>
536 </body>
537 </subsection>
538 <subsection>
539 <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
540 <body>
541
542 <p>
543 To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
544 </p>
545
546 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
547 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
548 </pre>
549
550 <p>
551 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
552 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
553 </p>
554
555 </body>
556 </subsection>
557 </section>
558 <section id="filesystems">
559 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
560 <subsection>
561 <title>Introduction</title>
562 <body>
563
564 <p>
565 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
566 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
567 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
568 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
569 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
570 </p>
571
572 </body>
573 </subsection>
574
575 <subsection>
576 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
577 </subsection>
578
579 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
580 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
581 <body>
582
583 <p>
584 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
585 each possible filesystem:
586 </p>
587
588 <table>
589 <tr>
590 <th>Filesystem</th>
591 <th>Creation Command</th>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti>ext2</ti>
595 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
596 </tr>
597 <tr>
598 <ti>ext3</ti>
599 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
600 </tr>
601 <tr>
602 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
603 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
604 </tr>
605 <tr>
606 <ti>xfs</ti>
607 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
608 </tr>
609 <tr>
610 <ti>jfs</ti>
611 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
612 </tr>
613 </table>
614
615 <p>
616 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
617 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
618 </p>
619
620 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
621 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
622 </pre>
623
624 <p>
625 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
626 volumes).
627 </p>
628
629 <impo>
630 If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
631 block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
632 explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
633 </impo>
634
635 </body>
636 </subsection>
637 <subsection>
638 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
639 <body>
640
641 <p>
642 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
643 </p>
644
645 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
646 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
647 </pre>
648
649 <p>
650 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
651 </p>
652
653 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
654 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
655 </pre>
656
657 <p>
658 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
659 </p>
660
661 </body>
662 </subsection>
663 </section>
664 <section>
665 <title>Mounting</title>
666 <body>
667
668 <p>
669 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
670 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
671 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
672 example we create a mount point and mount the root partition:
673 </p>
674
675 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
676 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
677 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
678 </pre>
679
680 <note>
681 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
682 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
683 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
684 </note>
685
686 <p>
687 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
688 Installation Files</uri>.
689 </p>
690
691 </body>
692 </section>
693 </sections>

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