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Wed Jul 21 01:55:53 2010 UTC (4 years, 2 months ago) by nightmorph
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Update the PPC64 handbook for the autobuilds. Major version bump for this release. Fixes bug 260403, bug 292726, and bug 234310.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.34 2009/01/26 08:04:26 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13 This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>10.0</version>
17 <date>2010-07-20</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21
22 <subsection>
23 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24 </subsection>
25
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
34 these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
35 called <e>slices</e>.
36 </p>
37
38 </body>
39 </subsection>
40 </section>
41 <section>
42 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
43 <subsection>
44 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
45 <body>
46
47 <p>
48 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
49 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
50 </p>
51
52 <table>
53 <tr>
54 <th>Partition</th>
55 <th>Filesystem</th>
56 <th>Size</th>
57 <th>Description</th>
58 </tr>
59 <tr>
60 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
61 <ti>Partition map</ti>
62 <ti>31.5k</ti>
63 <ti>Partition map</ti>
64 </tr>
65 <tr>
66 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
67 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
68 <ti>800k</ti>
69 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
70 </tr>
71 <tr>
72 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
73 <ti>(swap)</ti>
74 <ti>512M</ti>
75 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
76 </tr>
77 <tr>
78 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
79 <ti>ext3</ti>
80 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
81 <ti>Root partition</ti>
82 </tr>
83 </table>
84
85 <note>
86 There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43</path>,
87 <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>, <path>Apple_FWDriver</path>,
88 <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and <path>Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
89 planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
90 need them. You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk
91 can't delete them yet.
92 </note>
93
94 <p>
95 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
96 many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
97 <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
98 Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
99 your Disk</uri>
100 </p>
101
102 </body>
103 </subsection>
104 <subsection>
105 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
106 <body>
107
108 <p>
109 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
110 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
111 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
112 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
113 should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
114 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
115 a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
116 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
117 definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
118 majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
119 excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125 </p>
126
127 <ul>
128 <li>
129 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130 </li>
131 <li>
132 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138 it is with multiple partitions)
139 </li>
140 <li>
141 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143 </li>
144 </ul>
145
146 <p>
147 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
148 properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one
149 partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and
150 SATA.
151 </p>
152
153 </body>
154 </subsection>
155 </section>
156 <section id="mac-fdisk">
157 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) to Partition your Disk</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
162 </p>
163
164 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
165 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
166 </pre>
167
168 <p>
169 First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
170 Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
171 It will ask for the partition number to delete.
172 </p>
173
174 <p>
175 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
176 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
177 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
178 </p>
179
180 <note>
181 This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
182 you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
183 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
184 </note>
185
186 <p>
187 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
188 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
189 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
190 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
191 you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
192 </p>
193
194 <p>
195 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
196 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
197 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
198 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
199 </p>
200
201 <p>
202 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
203 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
204 </p>
205
206 <note>
207 To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
208 whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
209 created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
210 pressing <c>i</c> in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
211 and thus remove all your partitions.
212 </note>
213
214 <p>
215 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
216 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </section>
221 <section id="fdisk">
222 <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
223 <subsection>
224 <body>
225
226 <note>
227 If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your Gentoo installation and
228 you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprconfig</c> to
229 format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array. You
230 should emerge <c>iprutils</c> after your install is complete.
231 </note>
232
233 <p>
234 If you have an ipr-based SCSI adapter, you should start the ipr utilities now.
235 </p>
236
237 <pre caption="Starting ipr utilities">
238 # <i>/etc/init.d/iprinit start</i>
239 </pre>
240
241 <p>
242 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
243 described previously, namely:
244 </p>
245
246 <table>
247 <tr>
248 <th>Partition</th>
249 <th>Description</th>
250 </tr>
251 <tr>
252 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
253 <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
254 </tr>
255 <tr>
256 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
257 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
258 </tr>
259 <tr>
260 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
261 <ti>Root partition</ti>
262 </tr>
263 </table>
264
265 <p>
266 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </subsection>
271 <subsection>
272 <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
277 partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
278 use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
282 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
287 this:
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
291 Command (m for help):
292 </pre>
293
294 <p>
295 If you still have an AIX partition layout on your system, you will get the
296 following error message:
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption="Error message from fdisk">
300 There is a valid AIX label on this disk.
301 Unfortunately Linux cannot handle these
302 disks at the moment. Nevertheless some
303 advice:
304 1. fdisk will destroy its contents on write.
305 2. Be sure that this disk is NOT a still vital
306 part of a volume group. (Otherwise you may
307 erase the other disks as well, if unmirrored.)
308 3. Before deleting this physical volume be sure
309 to remove the disk logically from your AIX
310 machine. (Otherwise you become an AIXpert).
311
312 Command (m for help):
313 </pre>
314
315 <p>
316 Don't worry, you can create a new empty DOS partition table by pressing
317 <c>o</c>.
318 </p>
319
320 <warn>
321 This will destroy any installed AIX version!
322 </warn>
323
324 <p>
325 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk current partition configuration:
326 </p>
327
328 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
329 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
330
331 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
332 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
333 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
334
335 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
336 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
337 /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
338 /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
339 /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
340 /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
341 /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
342 /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
343 /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
344
345 Command (m for help):
346 </pre>
347
348 <p>
349 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
350 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
351 swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </subsection>
356 <subsection>
357 <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
362 <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
363 <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
364 </p>
365
366 <note>
367 If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you want to delete.
368 At this point you should create a backup of your data to avoid losing it.
369 </note>
370
371 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
372 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
373 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 <p>
377 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
378 if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
379 been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
380 changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit Enter and your partition will
381 not be deleted.
382 </p>
383
384 <p>
385 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
386 your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
387 and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
388 Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
392 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
393 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
394 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
395
396 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
397
398 Command (m for help):
399 </pre>
400
401 <p>
402 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
403 the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
404 previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
405 you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
406 </p>
407
408 </body>
409 </subsection>
410 <subsection>
411 <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
412 <body>
413
414 <p>
415 We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
416 partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
417 <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
418 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
419 <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 MB in size. After you've done
420 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
421 partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
422 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
423 partition as bootable.
424 </p>
425
426 <note>
427 The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MB!
428 </note>
429
430 <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
431 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
432
433 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
434 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
435 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
436
437 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
438
439 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
440 Command action
441 e extended
442 p primary partition (1-4)
443 <i>p</i>
444 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
445 First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
446 Using default value 1
447 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
448 6761): <i>+8M</i>
449
450 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
451 Selected partition 1
452 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
453 Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
454
455 Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
456 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
457 Command (m for help):
458 </pre>
459
460 <p>
461 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Created boot partition">
465 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
466
467 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
468 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
469 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
470
471 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
472 /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
473
474 Command (m for help):
475 </pre>
476 </body>
477 </subsection>
478 <subsection>
479 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
480 <body>
481
482 <p>
483 Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
484 a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
485 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
486 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
487 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
488 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
489 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
490 partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
491 partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
492 <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
496 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
497
498 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
499 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
500 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
501
502 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
503 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
504 /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
505
506 Command (m for help):
507 </pre>
508
509 </body>
510 </subsection>
511 <subsection>
512 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
513 <body>
514
515 <p>
516 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
517 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
518 primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
519 partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
520 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
521 enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
522 space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
523 display a partition table that looks similar to this:
524 </p>
525
526 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
527 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
528
529 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
530 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
531 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
532
533 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
534 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
535 /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
536 /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
537
538 Command (m for help):
539 </pre>
540 </body>
541 </subsection>
542 <subsection>
543 <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
544 <body>
545
546 <p>
547 To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
548 </p>
549
550 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
551 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
552 </pre>
553
554 <p>
555 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
556 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
557 </p>
558
559 </body>
560 </subsection>
561 </section>
562 <section id="filesystems">
563 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
564 <subsection>
565 <title>Introduction</title>
566 <body>
567
568 <p>
569 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
570 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
571 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
572 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
573 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
574 </p>
575
576 </body>
577 </subsection>
578
579 <subsection>
580 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
581 </subsection>
582
583 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
584 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
589 each possible filesystem:
590 </p>
591
592 <table>
593 <tr>
594 <th>Filesystem</th>
595 <th>Creation Command</th>
596 </tr>
597 <tr>
598 <ti>ext2</ti>
599 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
600 </tr>
601 <tr>
602 <ti>ext3</ti>
603 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
604 </tr>
605 <tr>
606 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
607 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
608 </tr>
609 <tr>
610 <ti>xfs</ti>
611 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
612 </tr>
613 <tr>
614 <ti>jfs</ti>
615 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
616 </tr>
617 </table>
618
619 <p>
620 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
621 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
622 </p>
623
624 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
625 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
626 </pre>
627
628 <p>
629 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
630 volumes).
631 </p>
632
633 <impo>
634 If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
635 block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
636 explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
637 </impo>
638
639 </body>
640 </subsection>
641 <subsection>
642 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
643 <body>
644
645 <p>
646 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
647 </p>
648
649 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
650 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
651 </pre>
652
653 <p>
654 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
655 </p>
656
657 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
658 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
659 </pre>
660
661 <p>
662 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
663 </p>
664
665 </body>
666 </subsection>
667 </section>
668 <section>
669 <title>Mounting</title>
670 <body>
671
672 <p>
673 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
674 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
675 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
676 example we create a mount point and mount the root partition:
677 </p>
678
679 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
680 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
681 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
682 </pre>
683
684 <note>
685 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
686 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
687 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
688 </note>
689
690 <p>
691 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
692 Installation Files</uri>.
693 </p>
694
695 </body>
696 </section>
697 </sections>

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