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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.6 2004/09/14 11:55:12 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Block Devices</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
18 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
19 Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
20 you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
21 for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22 </p>
23
24 <p>
25 To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
26 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
27 <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
28 drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
29 <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
30 </p>
31
32 <p>
33 The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
34 programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
35 about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
36 simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
37 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
38 </p>
39
40 </body>
41 </subsection>
42 <subsection>
43 <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <p>
47 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
48 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
49 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
50 these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
51 called <e>slices</e>.
52 </p>
53
54 </body>
55 </subsection>
56 </section>
57 <section>
58 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
59 <subsection>
60 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
61 <body>
62
63 <p>
64 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
65 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Partition</th>
71 <th>Filesystem</th>
72 <th>Size</th>
73 <th>Description</th>
74 </tr>
75 <tr>
76 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
77 <ti>Partition map</ti>
78 <ti>31.5k</ti>
79 <ti>Partition map</ti>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
83 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
84 <ti>800k</ti>
85 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
86 </tr>
87 <tr>
88 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
89 <ti>(swap)</ti>
90 <ti>512M</ti>
91 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
92 </tr>
93 <tr>
94 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
95 <ti>ext3</ti>
96 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
97 <ti>Root partition</ti>
98 </tr>
99 </table>
100
101 <note>
102 There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
103 Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
104 Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
105 delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
106 You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
107 </note>
108
109 <p>
110 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
111 many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
112 <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
113 Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
114 your Disk</uri>
115 </p>
116
117 </body>
118 </subsection>
119 <subsection>
120 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
121 <body>
122
123 <p>
124 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
125 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
126 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
127 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
128 <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
129 <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
130 performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
131 servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
132 security and backups.
133 </p>
134
135 <p>
136 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
137 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
138 </p>
139
140 <ul>
141 <li>
142 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
143 </li>
144 <li>
145 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
146 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
147 </li>
148 <li>
149 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
150 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
151 it is with multiple partitions)
152 </li>
153 <li>
154 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
155 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
156 </li>
157 </ul>
158
159 <p>
160 However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
161 properly, you might result in having a system with lots
162 of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
163 limit for SCSI and SATA.
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </subsection>
168 </section>
169 <section id="mac-fdisk">
170 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) Partition your Disk</title>
171 <body>
172
173 <p>
174 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
175 </p>
176
177 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
178 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
179 </pre>
180
181 <p>
182 First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
183 Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
184 It will ask for the partition number to delete.
185 </p>
186
187 <p>
188 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
189 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
190 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>.
191 </p>
192
193 <note>
194 This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
195 you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
196 users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
197 </note>
198
199 <p>
200 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
201 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c>
202 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
203 <c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
204 you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>
205 (mandatory).
206 </p>
207
208 <p>
209 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select
210 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
211 <c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
212 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
217 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
218 </p>
219
220 <note>
221 To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there.
222 If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk.
223 Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
224 </note>
225
226 <p>
227 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
228 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
229 </p>
230
231 </body>
232 </section>
233 <section id="fdisk">
234 <title>IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
235 <subsection>
236 <body>
237
238 <p>
239 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
240 described previously, namely:
241 </p>
242
243 <table>
244 <tr>
245 <th>Partition</th>
246 <th>Description</th>
247 </tr>
248 <tr>
249 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
250 <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
251 </tr>
252 <tr>
253 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
254 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
255 </tr>
256 <tr>
257 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
258 <ti>Root partition</ti>
259 </tr>
260 </table>
261
262 <p>
263 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
264 </p>
265
266 </body>
267 </subsection>
268 <subsection>
269 <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
274 partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
275 use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
276 </p>
277
278 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
279 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
280 </pre>
281
282 <p>
283 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
284 this:
285 </p>
286
287 <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
288 Command (m for help):
289 </pre>
290
291 <p>
292 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
296 Command (m for help): p
297
298 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
299 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
300 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
301
302 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
303 /dev/hdb1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
304 /dev/hdb2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
305 /dev/hdb3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
306 /dev/hdb4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
307 /dev/hdb5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
308 /dev/hdb6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
309 /dev/hdb7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
310 /dev/hdb8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
311
312 Command (m for help):
313 </pre>
314
315 <p>
316 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems
317 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
318 swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
319 </p>
320
321 </body>
322 </subsection>
323 <subsection>
324 <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
325 <body>
326
327 <p>
328 We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
329 <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
330 <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
331 </p>
332
333 <note>If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
334 want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
335 data to avoid the lose of it.
336 </note>
337
338 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
339 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
340 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
345 if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
346 been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
347 changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
348 not be deleted.
349 </p>
350
351 <p>
352 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
353 your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
354 and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
355 Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
359 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
360 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
361 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
362
363 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
364
365 Command (m for help):
366 </pre>
367
368 <p>
369 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
370 the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
371 previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
372 you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
373 </p>
374
375 </body>
376 </subsection>
377 <subsection>
378 <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
383 partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
384 <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
385 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
386 <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
387 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
388 partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
389 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot".
390 </p>
391
392 <note>
393 The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
394 </note>
395
396 <pre caption="Crating to PReP boot partition">
397 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
398
399 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
400 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
401 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
402
403 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
404
405 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
406 Command action
407 e extended
408 p primary partition (1-4)
409 <i>p</i>
410 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
411 First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
412 Using default value 1
413 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
414 6761): <i>+8M</i>
415
416 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
417 Selected partition 1
418 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
419 Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
420
421 Command (m for help):
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
426 printout:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Created boot partition">
430 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
431
432 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
433 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
434 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
435
436 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
437 /dev/hdb1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
438
439 Command (m for help):
440 </pre>
441 </body>
442 </subsection>
443 <subsection>
444 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
445 <body>
446
447 <p>
448 Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
449 a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
450 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
451 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
452 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
453 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
454 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
455 partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
456 partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
457 <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
461 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
462
463 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
464 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
465 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
466
467 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
468 /dev/hdb1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
469 /dev/hdb2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
470
471 Command (m for help):
472 </pre>
473
474 </body>
475 </subsection>
476 <subsection>
477 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
478 <body>
479
480 <p>
481 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
482 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
483 primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
484 partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
485 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
486 enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
487 space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
488 display a partition table that looks similar to this:
489 </p>
490
491 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
492 Command (m for help): p
493
494 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
495 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
496 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
497
498 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
499 /dev/hdb1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
500 /dev/hdb2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
501 /dev/hdb3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
502
503 Command (m for help):
504 </pre>
505 </body>
506 </subsection>
507 <subsection>
508 <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
509 <body>
510
511 <p>
512 To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
513 </p>
514
515 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
516 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
517 </pre>
518
519 <p>
520 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
521 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
522 </p>
523
524 </body>
525 </subsection>
526 <subsection>
527 <title>Filesystems?</title>
528 <body>
529
530 <note>
531 Several filesystems are available. Ext2 and ext3 are found stable on the
532 PPC64 architecture, reiserfs and xfs are in experimental stage. jfs is
533 unsupported.
534 </note>
535
536 <p>
537 <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
538 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
539 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
540 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
541 thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
542 filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
543 happens to be in an inconsistent state.
544 </p>
545
546 <p>
547 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
548 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
549 full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
550 filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
551 high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent
552 filesystem.
553 </p>
554
555 <p>
556 <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
557 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
558 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
559 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
560 solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
561 as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
562 files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
563 </p>
564
565 <p>
566 <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
567 under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
568 is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
569 systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
570 power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
571 designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
572 to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
573 system goes down unexpectedly.
574 </p>
575
576 <p>
577 <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
578 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
579 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this point.
580 </p>
581
582 </body>
583 </subsection>
584 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
585 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
586 <body>
587
588 <p>
589 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
590 each possible filesystem:
591 </p>
592
593 <table>
594 <tr>
595 <th>Filesystem</th>
596 <th>Creation Command</th>
597 </tr>
598 <tr>
599 <ti>ext2</ti>
600 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
601 </tr>
602 <tr>
603 <ti>ext3</ti>
604 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
605 </tr>
606 <tr>
607 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
608 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
609 </tr>
610 <tr>
611 <ti>xfs</ti>
612 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
613 </tr>
614 <tr>
615 <ti>jfs</ti>
616 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
617 </tr>
618 </table>
619
620 <p>
621 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
622 in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
623 </p>
624
625 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
626 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
627 </pre>
628
629 <p>
630 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
631 volumes).
632 </p>
633
634 </body>
635 </subsection>
636 <subsection>
637 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
638 <body>
639
640 <p>
641 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
642 </p>
643
644 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
645 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
646 </pre>
647
648 <p>
649 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
650 </p>
651
652 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
653 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
654 </pre>
655
656 <p>
657 Create and activate the swap now.
658 </p>
659
660 </body>
661 </subsection>
662 </section>
663 <section>
664 <title>Mounting</title>
665 <body>
666
667 <p>
668 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
669 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
670 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
671 example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
672 </p>
673
674 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
675 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
676 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
677 </pre>
678
679 <note>
680 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
681 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
682 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
683 </note>
684
685 <p>
686 Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
687 needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
688 the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
692 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
693 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
694 </pre>
695
696 <p>
697 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
698 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
699 </p>
700
701 <p>
702 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
703 Installation Files</uri>.
704 </p>
705
706 </body>
707 </section>
708 </sections>

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