/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.39 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Feb 23 18:38:22 2013 UTC (21 months, 3 weeks ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: HEAD
Changes since 1.38: +5 -5 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Fix bug #451596 - Mark ext4 as recommended fs

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.38 2012/10/28 10:29:03 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13 This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>14</version>
17 <date>2013-02-23</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21
22 <subsection>
23 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24 </subsection>
25
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
34 these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
35 called <e>slices</e>.
36 </p>
37
38 </body>
39 </subsection>
40 </section>
41 <section>
42 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
43 <subsection>
44 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
45 <body>
46
47 <p>
48 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
49 you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
50 </p>
51
52 <table>
53 <tr>
54 <th>Partition</th>
55 <th>Filesystem</th>
56 <th>Size</th>
57 <th>Description</th>
58 </tr>
59 <tr>
60 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
61 <ti>Partition map</ti>
62 <ti>31.5k</ti>
63 <ti>Partition map</ti>
64 </tr>
65 <tr>
66 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
67 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
68 <ti>800k</ti>
69 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
70 </tr>
71 <tr>
72 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
73 <ti>(swap)</ti>
74 <ti>512M</ti>
75 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
76 </tr>
77 <tr>
78 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
79 <ti>ext3 or ext4</ti>
80 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
81 <ti>Root partition</ti>
82 </tr>
83 </table>
84
85 <note>
86 There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43</path>,
87 <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>, <path>Apple_FWDriver</path>,
88 <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and <path>Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not
89 planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't
90 need them. You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk
91 can't delete them yet.
92 </note>
93
94 <p>
95 If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
96 many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
97 <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
98 Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
99 your Disk</uri>
100 </p>
101
102 </body>
103 </subsection>
104 <subsection>
105 <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
106 <body>
107
108 <p>
109 The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
110 if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
111 <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
112 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
113 should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
114 choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
115 a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
116 reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
117 definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
118 majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
119 excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
120 </p>
121
122 <p>
123 As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
124 partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
125 </p>
126
127 <ul>
128 <li>
129 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
130 </li>
131 <li>
132 Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
133 continuously writing files to a partition or volume
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
137 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
138 it is with multiple partitions)
139 </li>
140 <li>
141 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
142 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
143 </li>
144 </ul>
145
146 <p>
147 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
148 properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
149 none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
150 for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
151 require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
152 before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
153 results may vary.
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
158 </p>
159
160 </body>
161 </subsection>
162 </section>
163 <section id="mac-fdisk">
164 <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) to Partition your Disk</title>
165 <body>
166
167 <p>
168 At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
169 </p>
170
171 <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
172 # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
173 </pre>
174
175 <p>
176 First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
177 Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
178 It will ask for the partition number to delete.
179 </p>
180
181 <p>
182 Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
183 ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
184 partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
185 </p>
186
187 <note>
188 This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
189 you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
190 users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
191 </note>
192
193 <p>
194 Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
195 ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
196 before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
197 <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
198 you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
199 </p>
200
201 <p>
202 To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
203 from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
204 <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
205 space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
206 </p>
207
208 <p>
209 To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
210 quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
211 </p>
212
213 <note>
214 To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check
215 whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
216 created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
217 pressing <c>i</c> in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map
218 and thus remove all your partitions.
219 </note>
220
221 <p>
222 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
223 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
224 </p>
225
226 </body>
227 </section>
228 <section id="fdisk">
229 <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
230 <subsection>
231 <body>
232
233 <note>
234 If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your Gentoo installation and
235 you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprconfig</c> to
236 format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array. You
237 should emerge <c>iprutils</c> after your install is complete.
238 </note>
239
240 <p>
241 If you have an ipr-based SCSI adapter, you should start the ipr utilities now.
242 </p>
243
244 <pre caption="Starting ipr utilities">
245 # <i>/etc/init.d/iprinit start</i>
246 </pre>
247
248 <p>
249 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
250 described previously, namely:
251 </p>
252
253 <table>
254 <tr>
255 <th>Partition</th>
256 <th>Description</th>
257 </tr>
258 <tr>
259 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
260 <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
261 </tr>
262 <tr>
263 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
264 <ti>Swap partition</ti>
265 </tr>
266 <tr>
267 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
268 <ti>Root partition</ti>
269 </tr>
270 </table>
271
272 <p>
273 Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
274 </p>
275
276 </body>
277 </subsection>
278 <subsection>
279 <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
284 partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
285 use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
289 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <p>
293 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
294 this:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
298 Command (m for help):
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 If you still have an AIX partition layout on your system, you will get the
303 following error message:
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Error message from fdisk">
307 There is a valid AIX label on this disk.
308 Unfortunately Linux cannot handle these
309 disks at the moment. Nevertheless some
310 advice:
311 1. fdisk will destroy its contents on write.
312 2. Be sure that this disk is NOT a still vital
313 part of a volume group. (Otherwise you may
314 erase the other disks as well, if unmirrored.)
315 3. Before deleting this physical volume be sure
316 to remove the disk logically from your AIX
317 machine. (Otherwise you become an AIXpert).
318
319 Command (m for help):
320 </pre>
321
322 <p>
323 Don't worry, you can create a new empty DOS partition table by pressing
324 <c>o</c>.
325 </p>
326
327 <warn>
328 This will destroy any installed AIX version!
329 </warn>
330
331 <p>
332 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk current partition configuration:
333 </p>
334
335 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
336 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
337
338 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
339 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
340 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
341
342 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
343 /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
344 /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
345 /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
346 /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
347 /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
348 /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
349 /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
350 /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
351
352 Command (m for help):
353 </pre>
354
355 <p>
356 This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
357 (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
358 swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
359 </p>
360
361 </body>
362 </subsection>
363 <subsection>
364 <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
369 <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
370 <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
371 </p>
372
373 <note>
374 If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you want to delete.
375 At this point you should create a backup of your data to avoid losing it.
376 </note>
377
378 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
379 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
380 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
381 </pre>
382
383 <p>
384 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
385 if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
386 been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
387 changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit Enter and your partition will
388 not be deleted.
389 </p>
390
391 <p>
392 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
393 your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
394 and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
395 Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
399 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
400 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
401 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
402
403 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
404
405 Command (m for help):
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>
409 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
410 the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
411 previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
412 you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
413 </p>
414
415 </body>
416 </subsection>
417 <subsection>
418 <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
419 <body>
420
421 <p>
422 We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
423 partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
424 <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
425 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
426 <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 MB in size. After you've done
427 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
428 partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
429 partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
430 partition as bootable.
431 </p>
432
433 <note>
434 The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MB!
435 </note>
436
437 <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
438 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
439
440 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
441 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
442 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
443
444 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
445
446 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
447 Command action
448 e extended
449 p primary partition (1-4)
450 <i>p</i>
451 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
452 First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
453 Using default value 1
454 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
455 6761): <i>+8M</i>
456
457 Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
458 Selected partition 1
459 Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
460 Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
461
462 Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
463 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
464 Command (m for help):
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>
468 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Created boot partition">
472 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
473
474 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
475 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
476 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
477
478 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
479 /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
480
481 Command (m for help):
482 </pre>
483 </body>
484 </subsection>
485 <subsection>
486 <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
487 <body>
488
489 <p>
490 Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
491 a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
492 partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
493 <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
494 cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
495 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
496 this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
497 partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
498 partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
499 <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
500 </p>
501
502 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
503 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
504
505 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
506 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
507 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
508
509 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
510 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
511 /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
512
513 Command (m for help):
514 </pre>
515
516 </body>
517 </subsection>
518 <subsection>
519 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
520 <body>
521
522 <p>
523 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
524 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
525 primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
526 partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
527 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
528 enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
529 space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
530 display a partition table that looks similar to this:
531 </p>
532
533 <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
534 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
535
536 Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
537 141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
538 Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
539
540 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
541 /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
542 /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
543 /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
544
545 Command (m for help):
546 </pre>
547 </body>
548 </subsection>
549 <subsection>
550 <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
551 <body>
552
553 <p>
554 To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
555 </p>
556
557 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
558 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
559 </pre>
560
561 <p>
562 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
563 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
564 </p>
565
566 </body>
567 </subsection>
568 </section>
569 <section id="filesystems">
570 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
571 <subsection>
572 <title>Introduction</title>
573 <body>
574
575 <p>
576 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
577 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
578 as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
579 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
580 Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
581 </p>
582
583 </body>
584 </subsection>
585
586 <subsection>
587 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
588 </subsection>
589
590 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
591 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
592 <body>
593
594 <p>
595 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
596 each possible filesystem:
597 </p>
598
599 <table>
600 <tr>
601 <th>Filesystem</th>
602 <th>Creation Command</th>
603 </tr>
604 <tr>
605 <ti>ext2</ti>
606 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
607 </tr>
608 <tr>
609 <ti>ext3</ti>
610 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
611 </tr>
612 <tr>
613 <ti>ext4</ti>
614 <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
615 </tr>
616 <tr>
617 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
618 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
619 </tr>
620 <tr>
621 <ti>xfs</ti>
622 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
623 </tr>
624 <tr>
625 <ti>jfs</ti>
626 <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
627 </tr>
628 </table>
629
630 <p>
631 For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
632 in ext4 (as in our example), you would use:
633 </p>
634
635 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
636 # <i>mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda4</i>
637 </pre>
638
639 <p>
640 Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
641 volumes).
642 </p>
643
644 <impo>
645 If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
646 block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
647 explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
648 </impo>
649
650 </body>
651 </subsection>
652 <subsection>
653 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
654 <body>
655
656 <p>
657 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
658 </p>
659
660 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
661 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
662 </pre>
663
664 <p>
665 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
666 </p>
667
668 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
669 # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
670 </pre>
671
672 <p>
673 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
674 </p>
675
676 </body>
677 </subsection>
678 </section>
679 <section>
680 <title>Mounting</title>
681 <body>
682
683 <p>
684 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
685 time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
686 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
687 example we create a mount point and mount the root partition:
688 </p>
689
690 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
691 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
692 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
693 </pre>
694
695 <note>
696 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
697 change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
698 also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
699 </note>
700
701 <p>
702 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
703 Installation Files</uri>.
704 </p>
705
706 </body>
707 </section>
708 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20