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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.1 2004/04/05 09:11:03 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Block Devices</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
18     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
19     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
20     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
21     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22     </p>
23    
24     <p>
25     To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
26     probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
27     namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
28     </p>
29    
30     <p>
31     Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
32     use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
33     whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
34     address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
35     512-byte blocks.
36     </p>
37    
38     <p>
39     Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
40     SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
41     and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
42     instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
43     <path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
44     </p>
45    
46     </body>
47     </subsection>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Partitions</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
54     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
55     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
56     <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
57     </p>
58    
59     <p>
60     The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
61     <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
62     first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
63     </p>
64    
65     <p>
66     The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
67     slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
68     </p>
69    
70     <p>
71     Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
72     disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
73     eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
74     reserved.
75     </p>
76    
77     </body>
78     </subsection>
79     </section>
80     <section>
81     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
82     <subsection>
83     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
84     <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
88     the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
89     IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
90     </p>
91    
92     <p>
93     Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
94     recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
95     </p>
96    
97     <table>
98     <tr>
99     <th>Partition</th>
100     <th>Filesystem</th>
101     <th>Size</th>
102     <th>Mount Point</th>
103     <th>Description</th>
104     </tr>
105     <tr>
106     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
107     <ti>ext3</ti>
108     <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
109     <ti>/</ti>
110     <ti>Root partition. For all sparc32 systems, and sparc64 systems with older
111     OBP versions, this <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first
112     partition on the disk.</ti>
113     </tr>
114     <tr>
115     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
116     <ti>swap</ti>
117     <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
118     <ti>none</ti>
119     <ti>Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
120     MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.</ti>
121     </tr>
122     <tr>
123     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
124     <ti>none</ti>
125     <ti>Whole disk</ti>
126     <ti>none</ti>
127     <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
128     </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
131     <ti>ext3</ti>
132     <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
133     <ti>/usr</ti>
134     <ti>/usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
135     is also used for portage data.</ti>
136     </tr>
137     <tr>
138     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
139     <ti>ext3</ti>
140     <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
141     <ti>/var</ti>
142     <ti>/var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default portage uses
143     this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
144     applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
145     of temporary space here when building.</ti>
146     </tr>
147     <tr>
148     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
149     <ti>ext3</ti>
150     <ti>remaining space</ti>
151     <ti>/home</ti>
152     <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
153     </tr>
154     </table>
155    
156     </body>
157     </subsection>
158     </section>
159    
160     <section id="fdisk">
161     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
162     <subsection>
163     <body>
164    
165     <p>
166     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
167     previously, namely:
168     </p>
169    
170     <table>
171     <tr>
172     <th>Partition</th>
173     <th>Description</th>
174     </tr>
175     <tr>
176     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
177     <ti>/</ti>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
181     <ti>swap</ti>
182     </tr>
183     <tr>
184     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
185     <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
186     </tr>
187     <tr>
188     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
189     <ti>/usr</ti>
190     </tr>
191     <tr>
192     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
193     <ti>/var</ti>
194     </tr>
195     <tr>
196     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
197     <ti>/home</ti>
198     </tr>
199     </table>
200    
201     <p>
202     Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
203     entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems.
204     </p>
205    
206     </body>
207     </subsection>
208     <subsection>
209     <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
210     <body>
211    
212     <p>
213     Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
214     </p>
215    
216     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
217     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
218     </pre>
219    
220     <p>
221     You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
222     </p>
223    
224     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
225     Command (m for help):
226     </pre>
227    
228     <p>
229     To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
230     </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
233     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
234    
235     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
236     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
237    
238     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
239     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
240     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
241     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
242     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
243     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
244     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
245     </pre>
246    
247     <p>
248     Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
249     using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
250     to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
254     Command (m for help): s
255     Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
256     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
257     content won't be recoverable.
258    
259     Drive type
260     ? auto configure
261     0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
262     a Quantum ProDrive 80S
263     b Quantum ProDrive 105S
264     c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
265     d IBM DPES-31080
266     e IBM DORS-32160
267     f IBM DNES-318350
268     g SEAGATE ST34371
269     h SUN0104
270     i SUN0207
271     j SUN0327
272     k SUN0340
273     l SUN0424
274     m SUN0535
275     n SUN0669
276     o SUN1.0G
277     p SUN1.05
278     q SUN1.3G
279     r SUN2.1G
280     s IOMEGA Jaz
281     Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
282     Heads (1-1024, default 64):
283     Using default value 64
284     Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
285     Using default value 32
286     Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
287     Using default value 8635
288     Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
289     Using default value 2
290     Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
291     Using default value 8637
292     Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
293     Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
294     Using default value 1
295     Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
296     Using default value 0
297     </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300     You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
301     'auto configure' option does not usually work.
302     </p>
303    
304     </body>
305     </subsection>
306     <subsection>
307     <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311     It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
312     Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
313     delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
314     </p>
315    
316     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
317     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
318     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
319     </pre>
320    
321     <p>
322     <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
323     this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
324     instructions above.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
329     partition layout similar to the following:
330     </p>
331    
332     <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
333     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
334    
335     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
336     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
337    
338     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
339     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
340     </pre>
341    
342    
343     </body>
344     </subsection>
345    
346     <subsection>
347     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
348     <body>
349    
350     <p>
351     We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
352     new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for the
353     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c>
354 neysx 1.2 to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the entire root
355 swift 1.1 partition must be contained entirely within the first 2GBytes of the disk.
356     You can see output from these steps below:
357     </p>
358    
359 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
360 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
361     Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
362     First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
363     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
364     </pre>
365    
366     <p>
367     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
368     </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
371     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
372    
373     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
374     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
375    
376     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
377     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
378     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
379     </pre>
380 neysx 1.2
381 swift 1.1 </body>
382     </subsection>
383     <subsection>
384     <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
385     <body>
386    
387     <p>
388     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
389     partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
390     in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
391     the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
392     you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
393     <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
394     steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
395     this:
396     </p>
397    
398     <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
399     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
400    
401     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
402     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
403    
404     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
405     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
406     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
407     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
408     </pre>
409    
410     </body>
411     </subsection>
412     <subsection>
413     <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
414     <body>
415    
416     <p>
417     Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
418     type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
419     third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
420     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
421     <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
422     for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
423     you're done, you should see something like this:
424     </p>
425    
426     <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
427     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
428    
429     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
430     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
431    
432     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
433     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
434     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
435     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
436     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
437     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
438     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
439     </pre>
440    
441     </body>
442     </subsection>
443     <subsection>
444     <title>Save and Exit</title>
445     <body>
446    
447     <p>
448     To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
449     </p>
450    
451     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
452     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
453     </pre>
454    
455     <p>
456     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
457     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
458     </p>
459    
460     </body>
461     </subsection>
462     </section>
463     <section id="filesystems">
464     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
465     <subsection>
466     <title>Introduction</title>
467     <body>
468    
469     <p>
470     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
471     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
472     used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
473     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
474     Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
475     </p>
476    
477     </body>
478     </subsection>
479     <subsection>
480     <title>Filesystems?</title>
481     <body>
482    
483     <p>
484     Several filesystems are available, a few of which are known to be stable on the
485     SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
486     Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
487     </p>
488    
489     <p>
490     <b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
491     journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
492     can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
493     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
494     startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
495     counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
496     system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
497     </p>
498    
499     <p>
500     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
501     metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
502     modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 has an additional hashed
503     b-tree indexing option that enables high performance in almost all situations.
504     Ext3 makes an excellent and reliable alternative to ext2.
505     </p>
506    
507     <p>
508     <b>ReiserFS</b> works only partially on sparc64 systems and is therefore not
509     recommended for general use. <b>XFS</b> should be avoided, as it is known to
510     have many problems on SPARCs and could ruin your data. Another journaling
511     filesystem, <b>JFS</b>, is not supported. Regardless of your decision for
512     filesystems, the bootloader requires that the root partition be either ext2 or
513     ext3."
514     </p>
515    
516     </body>
517     </subsection>
518     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
519     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
520     <body>
521    
522     <p>
523     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
524     filesystem are available:
525     </p>
526    
527     <table>
528     <tr>
529     <th>Filesystem</th>
530     <th>Creation Command</th>
531     </tr>
532     <tr>
533     <ti>ext2</ti>
534     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
535     </tr>
536     <tr>
537     <ti>ext3</ti>
538     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
539     </tr>
540     <tr>
541     <ti>ext3 with hashed b-tree indexing (2.6 kernels only)</ti>
542     <ti><c>mke2fs -j -O dir_index</c></ti>
543     </tr>
544     </table>
545    
546     <p>
547     For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
548     example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
549     <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
550     and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
551     </p>
552    
553     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
554     # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
555     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
556     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
557     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
558     </pre>
559    
560     </body>
561     </subsection>
562     <subsection>
563     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
564     <body>
565    
566     <p>
567     <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
568     </p>
569    
570     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
571     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
572     </pre>
573    
574     <p>
575     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
576     </p>
577    
578     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
579     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
580     </pre>
581    
582     <p>
583     Create and activate the swap now.
584     </p>
585    
586     </body>
587     </subsection>
588     </section>
589     <section>
590     <title>Mounting</title>
591     <body>
592    
593     <p>
594     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
595     time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
596     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
597     example:
598     </p>
599    
600     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
601     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
602     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
603     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
604     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
605 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
606 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
607 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
608 swift 1.1 </pre>
609    
610     <note>
611     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
612     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
613     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
614     </note>
615    
616     <p>
617     We also need to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the kernel)
618     on <path>/proc</path>. We first create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path>
619     mount point and then mount the filesystem:
620     </p>
621    
622     <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo/proc mount point">
623     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
624     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
625     </pre>
626    
627     <p>
628     Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
629     Installation Files</uri>.
630     </p>
631    
632     </body>
633     </section>
634     </sections>

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