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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 rane 1.26 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.25 2006/08/30 22:52:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 rane 1.26 <version>3.0</version>
12     <date>2006-09-01</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
23     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
24     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
25     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
31     namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <p>
35     Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
36     use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
37     whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
38     address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
39     512-byte blocks.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
44     SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
45     and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
46     instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
47     <path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
48     </p>
49    
50     </body>
51     </subsection>
52     <subsection>
53     <title>Partitions</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
58     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
59     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
60     <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
61     </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
65     <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
66     first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
67     </p>
68    
69     <p>
70     The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
71     slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
72     </p>
73    
74     <p>
75     Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
76     disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
77     eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
78     reserved.
79     </p>
80    
81     </body>
82     </subsection>
83     </section>
84     <section>
85     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
86     <subsection>
87     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
88     <body>
89    
90     <p>
91     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
92     the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
93     IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
94     </p>
95    
96     <p>
97     Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
98     recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
99     </p>
100    
101     <table>
102     <tr>
103     <th>Partition</th>
104     <th>Filesystem</th>
105     <th>Size</th>
106     <th>Mount Point</th>
107     <th>Description</th>
108     </tr>
109     <tr>
110     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
111     <ti>ext3</ti>
112     <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
113     <ti>/</ti>
114 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
115 swift 1.24 Root partition. For sun4c, sun4d and sun4m systems, some PROMs require
116     this partition to be less than 1 GBytes in size and the first
117 bennyc 1.3 partition on the disk.
118     </ti>
119 swift 1.1 </tr>
120     <tr>
121     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
122     <ti>swap</ti>
123     <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
124     <ti>none</ti>
125 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
126     Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
127     MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.
128     </ti>
129 swift 1.1 </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
132     <ti>none</ti>
133     <ti>Whole disk</ti>
134     <ti>none</ti>
135     <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
136     </tr>
137     <tr>
138     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
139     <ti>ext3</ti>
140     <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
141     <ti>/usr</ti>
142 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
143     /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
144 swift 1.20 is also used for Portage data (which takes around 500 Mbyte excluding
145     source code).
146 bennyc 1.3 </ti>
147 swift 1.1 </tr>
148     <tr>
149     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
150     <ti>ext3</ti>
151     <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
152     <ti>/var</ti>
153 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
154 swift 1.9 /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default Portage uses
155 bennyc 1.3 this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
156     applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
157     of temporary space here when building.
158     </ti>
159 swift 1.1 </tr>
160     <tr>
161     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
162     <ti>ext3</ti>
163     <ti>remaining space</ti>
164     <ti>/home</ti>
165     <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
166     </tr>
167     </table>
168    
169     </body>
170     </subsection>
171     </section>
172    
173     <section id="fdisk">
174     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
175     <subsection>
176     <body>
177    
178     <p>
179     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
180     previously, namely:
181     </p>
182    
183     <table>
184     <tr>
185     <th>Partition</th>
186     <th>Description</th>
187     </tr>
188     <tr>
189     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
190     <ti>/</ti>
191     </tr>
192     <tr>
193     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
194     <ti>swap</ti>
195     </tr>
196     <tr>
197     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
198     <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
199     </tr>
200     <tr>
201     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
202     <ti>/usr</ti>
203     </tr>
204     <tr>
205     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
206     <ti>/var</ti>
207     </tr>
208     <tr>
209     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
210     <ti>/home</ti>
211     </tr>
212     </table>
213    
214     <p>
215     Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
216 swift 1.6 entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems. There is also
217 swift 1.8 a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
218 swift 1.1 </p>
219    
220     </body>
221     </subsection>
222     <subsection>
223     <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
224     <body>
225    
226     <p>
227     Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
228     </p>
229    
230     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
231     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
232     </pre>
233    
234     <p>
235     You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
236     </p>
237    
238     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
239     Command (m for help):
240     </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243     To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
244     </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
247     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
248    
249     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
250     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
251    
252     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
253     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
254     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
255     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
256     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
257     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
258     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
259     </pre>
260    
261     <p>
262     Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
263     using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
264     to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
265     </p>
266    
267     <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
268     Command (m for help): s
269     Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
270     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
271     content won't be recoverable.
272    
273     Drive type
274     ? auto configure
275     0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
276     a Quantum ProDrive 80S
277     b Quantum ProDrive 105S
278     c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
279     d IBM DPES-31080
280     e IBM DORS-32160
281     f IBM DNES-318350
282     g SEAGATE ST34371
283     h SUN0104
284     i SUN0207
285     j SUN0327
286     k SUN0340
287     l SUN0424
288     m SUN0535
289     n SUN0669
290     o SUN1.0G
291     p SUN1.05
292     q SUN1.3G
293     r SUN2.1G
294     s IOMEGA Jaz
295     Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
296     Heads (1-1024, default 64):
297     Using default value 64
298     Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
299     Using default value 32
300     Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
301     Using default value 8635
302     Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
303     Using default value 2
304     Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
305     Using default value 8637
306     Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
307     Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
308     Using default value 1
309     Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
310     Using default value 0
311     </pre>
312    
313     <p>
314     You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
315     'auto configure' option does not usually work.
316     </p>
317    
318     </body>
319     </subsection>
320     <subsection>
321     <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
322     <body>
323    
324     <p>
325     It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
326     Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
327     delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
328     </p>
329    
330     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
331     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
332     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
333     </pre>
334    
335     <p>
336     <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
337     this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
338     instructions above.
339     </p>
340    
341     <p>
342     After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
343     partition layout similar to the following:
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
347     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
348    
349     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
350     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
351    
352     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
353     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
354     </pre>
355    
356    
357     </body>
358     </subsection>
359    
360     <subsection>
361     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365 neysx 1.23 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
366     new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for
367     the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
368     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the
369     entire root partition fits within the first 2GBytes of the disk. You can see
370     output from these steps below:
371 swift 1.1 </p>
372    
373 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
374 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
375     Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
376     First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
377     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
378     </pre>
379    
380     <p>
381     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
382     </p>
383    
384     <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
385     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
386    
387     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
388     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
389    
390     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
391     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
392     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
393     </pre>
394 neysx 1.2
395 swift 1.1 </body>
396     </subsection>
397     <subsection>
398     <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
403     partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
404     in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
405     the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
406     you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
407     <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
408     steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
409     this:
410     </p>
411    
412     <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
413     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
414    
415     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
416     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
417    
418     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
419     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
420     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
421     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
422     </pre>
423    
424     </body>
425     </subsection>
426     <subsection>
427     <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
428     <body>
429    
430     <p>
431     Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
432     type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
433     third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
434     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
435     <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
436     for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
437     you're done, you should see something like this:
438     </p>
439    
440     <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
441     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
442    
443     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
444     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
445    
446     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
447     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
448     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
449     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
450     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
451     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
452     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
453     </pre>
454    
455     </body>
456     </subsection>
457     <subsection>
458     <title>Save and Exit</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
463     </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
466     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
467     </pre>
468    
469     <p>
470     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
471     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
472     </p>
473    
474     </body>
475     </subsection>
476     </section>
477     <section id="filesystems">
478     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
479     <subsection>
480     <title>Introduction</title>
481     <body>
482    
483     <p>
484     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
485     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
486     used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
487     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
488     Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
489     </p>
490    
491     </body>
492     </subsection>
493     <subsection>
494     <title>Filesystems?</title>
495     <body>
496    
497     <p>
498 neysx 1.7 Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the
499 swift 1.1 SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
500     Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
501     </p>
502    
503     <p>
504     <b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
505     journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
506     can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
507     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
508     startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
509     counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
510     system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
511     </p>
512    
513     <p>
514     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
515     metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
516 nightmorph 1.25 modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 makes an excellent and
517     reliable alternative to ext2.
518 swift 1.1 </p>
519    
520     </body>
521     </subsection>
522     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
523     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
524     <body>
525    
526     <p>
527     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
528     filesystem are available:
529     </p>
530    
531     <table>
532     <tr>
533     <th>Filesystem</th>
534     <th>Creation Command</th>
535     </tr>
536     <tr>
537     <ti>ext2</ti>
538     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
539     </tr>
540     <tr>
541     <ti>ext3</ti>
542     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
543     </tr>
544     </table>
545    
546     <p>
547     For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
548     example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
549     <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
550     and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
551     </p>
552    
553     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
554     # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
555     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
556     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
557     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
558     </pre>
559    
560     </body>
561     </subsection>
562     <subsection>
563     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
564     <body>
565    
566     <p>
567     <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
568     </p>
569    
570     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
571     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
572     </pre>
573    
574     <p>
575     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
576     </p>
577    
578     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
579     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
580     </pre>
581    
582     <p>
583 swift 1.17 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
584 swift 1.1 </p>
585    
586     </body>
587     </subsection>
588     </section>
589     <section>
590     <title>Mounting</title>
591     <body>
592    
593     <p>
594     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
595     time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
596     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
597     example:
598     </p>
599    
600     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
601     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
602     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
603     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
604     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
605 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
606 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
607 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
608 swift 1.1 </pre>
609    
610     <note>
611     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
612     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
613     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
614     </note>
615    
616     <p>
617 swift 1.5 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
618     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
619 swift 1.1 </p>
620    
621     <p>
622 swift 1.5 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
623 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
624     </p>
625    
626     </body>
627     </section>
628     </sections>

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