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release time. note that since this is beta1, the release dir and stage/media names have been adjusted accordingly. also, the handbooks are marked with a disclaimer=draft, so once the final is out, that will be removed and the release names adjusted. in the mean time, these are live. the beta is officially released. no, it's not april fools, but it is april 1st. :)

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.31 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.24 2008/03/31 21:48:59 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.10
11 nightmorph 1.31 <version>5.0</version>
12     <date>2008-04-01</date>
13 swift 1.10
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16 nightmorph 1.31
17 swift 1.1 <subsection>
18 nightmorph 1.31 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19     </subsection>
20 swift 1.1
21     <subsection>
22     <title>Partitions</title>
23     <body>
24    
25     <p>
26     Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
27     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
29     <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
30     </p>
31    
32     <p>
33     The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
34     <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
35     first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
36     </p>
37    
38     <p>
39     The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
40     slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
41     </p>
42    
43     <p>
44     Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
45     disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
46     eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
47     reserved.
48     </p>
49    
50     </body>
51     </subsection>
52     </section>
53     <section>
54     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
55     <subsection>
56     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
57     <body>
58    
59     <p>
60     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
61     the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
62     IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
63     </p>
64    
65     <p>
66     Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
67     recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
68     </p>
69    
70     <table>
71     <tr>
72     <th>Partition</th>
73     <th>Filesystem</th>
74     <th>Size</th>
75     <th>Mount Point</th>
76     <th>Description</th>
77     </tr>
78     <tr>
79     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
80     <ti>ext3</ti>
81     <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
82     <ti>/</ti>
83 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
84 nightmorph 1.29 Root partition. For sparc64 systems with older OBP versions, this
85     <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first partition on the
86     disk.
87 bennyc 1.3 </ti>
88 swift 1.1 </tr>
89     <tr>
90     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
91     <ti>swap</ti>
92     <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
93     <ti>none</ti>
94 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
95     Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
96     MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.
97     </ti>
98 swift 1.1 </tr>
99     <tr>
100     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
101     <ti>none</ti>
102     <ti>Whole disk</ti>
103     <ti>none</ti>
104     <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
105     </tr>
106     <tr>
107     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
108     <ti>ext3</ti>
109     <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
110     <ti>/usr</ti>
111 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
112     /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
113 swift 1.20 is also used for Portage data (which takes around 500 Mbyte excluding
114     source code).
115 bennyc 1.3 </ti>
116 swift 1.1 </tr>
117     <tr>
118     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
119     <ti>ext3</ti>
120     <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
121     <ti>/var</ti>
122 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
123 swift 1.9 /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default Portage uses
124 bennyc 1.3 this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
125     applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
126     of temporary space here when building.
127     </ti>
128 swift 1.1 </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
131     <ti>ext3</ti>
132     <ti>remaining space</ti>
133     <ti>/home</ti>
134     <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
135     </tr>
136     </table>
137    
138     </body>
139     </subsection>
140     </section>
141    
142     <section id="fdisk">
143     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
144     <subsection>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
149     previously, namely:
150     </p>
151    
152     <table>
153     <tr>
154     <th>Partition</th>
155     <th>Description</th>
156     </tr>
157     <tr>
158     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
159     <ti>/</ti>
160     </tr>
161     <tr>
162     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
163     <ti>swap</ti>
164     </tr>
165     <tr>
166     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
167     <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
168     </tr>
169     <tr>
170     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
171     <ti>/usr</ti>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
175     <ti>/var</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
179     <ti>/home</ti>
180     </tr>
181     </table>
182    
183     <p>
184     Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
185 swift 1.6 entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems. There is also
186 swift 1.8 a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
187 swift 1.1 </p>
188    
189     </body>
190     </subsection>
191     <subsection>
192     <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
193     <body>
194    
195     <p>
196     Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
197     </p>
198    
199     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
200     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
201     </pre>
202    
203     <p>
204     You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
205     </p>
206    
207     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
208     Command (m for help):
209     </pre>
210    
211     <p>
212     To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
213     </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
216     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
217    
218     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
219     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
220    
221     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
222     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
223     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
224     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
225     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
226     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
227     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
228     </pre>
229    
230     <p>
231     Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
232     using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
233     to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
237     Command (m for help): s
238     Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
239     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
240     content won't be recoverable.
241    
242     Drive type
243     ? auto configure
244     0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
245     a Quantum ProDrive 80S
246     b Quantum ProDrive 105S
247     c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
248     d IBM DPES-31080
249     e IBM DORS-32160
250     f IBM DNES-318350
251     g SEAGATE ST34371
252     h SUN0104
253     i SUN0207
254     j SUN0327
255     k SUN0340
256     l SUN0424
257     m SUN0535
258     n SUN0669
259     o SUN1.0G
260     p SUN1.05
261     q SUN1.3G
262     r SUN2.1G
263     s IOMEGA Jaz
264     Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
265     Heads (1-1024, default 64):
266     Using default value 64
267     Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
268     Using default value 32
269     Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
270     Using default value 8635
271     Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
272     Using default value 2
273     Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
274     Using default value 8637
275     Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
276     Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
277     Using default value 1
278     Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
279     Using default value 0
280     </pre>
281    
282     <p>
283     You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
284     'auto configure' option does not usually work.
285     </p>
286    
287     </body>
288     </subsection>
289     <subsection>
290     <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
295     Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
296     delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
297     </p>
298    
299     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
300     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
301     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
302     </pre>
303    
304     <p>
305     <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
306     this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
307     instructions above.
308     </p>
309    
310     <p>
311     After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
312     partition layout similar to the following:
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
316     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
317    
318     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
319     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
320    
321     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
322     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
323     </pre>
324    
325    
326     </body>
327     </subsection>
328    
329     <subsection>
330     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
331     <body>
332    
333     <p>
334 neysx 1.23 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
335     new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for
336     the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
337     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the
338     entire root partition fits within the first 2GBytes of the disk. You can see
339     output from these steps below:
340 swift 1.1 </p>
341    
342 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
343 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
344     Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
345     First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
346     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
347     </pre>
348    
349     <p>
350     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
354     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
355    
356     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
357     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
358    
359     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
360     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
361     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
362     </pre>
363 neysx 1.2
364 swift 1.1 </body>
365     </subsection>
366     <subsection>
367     <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
368     <body>
369    
370     <p>
371     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
372     partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
373     in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
374     the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
375     you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
376     <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
377     steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
378     this:
379     </p>
380    
381     <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
382     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
383    
384     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
385     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
386    
387     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
388     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
389     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
390     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
391     </pre>
392    
393     </body>
394     </subsection>
395     <subsection>
396     <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
397     <body>
398    
399     <p>
400     Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
401     type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
402     third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
403     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
404     <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
405     for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
406     you're done, you should see something like this:
407     </p>
408    
409     <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
410     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
411    
412     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
413     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
414    
415     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
416     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
417     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
418     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
419     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
420     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
421     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
422     </pre>
423    
424     </body>
425     </subsection>
426     <subsection>
427     <title>Save and Exit</title>
428     <body>
429    
430     <p>
431     To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
435     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
436     </pre>
437    
438     <p>
439     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
440     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
441     </p>
442    
443     </body>
444     </subsection>
445     </section>
446     <section id="filesystems">
447     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
448     <subsection>
449     <title>Introduction</title>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
454     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
455     used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
456     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
457     Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
458     </p>
459    
460     </body>
461     </subsection>
462 nightmorph 1.31
463 swift 1.1 <subsection>
464 nightmorph 1.31 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
465     </subsection>
466 swift 1.1
467     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
468     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
473     filesystem are available:
474     </p>
475    
476     <table>
477     <tr>
478     <th>Filesystem</th>
479     <th>Creation Command</th>
480     </tr>
481     <tr>
482     <ti>ext2</ti>
483     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
484     </tr>
485     <tr>
486     <ti>ext3</ti>
487     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
488     </tr>
489     </table>
490    
491     <p>
492     For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
493     example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
494     <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
495     and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
496     </p>
497    
498     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
499     # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
500 nightmorph 1.29 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
501     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
502     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
503 swift 1.1 </pre>
504    
505     </body>
506     </subsection>
507     <subsection>
508     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
509     <body>
510    
511     <p>
512     <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
513     </p>
514    
515     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
516     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
517     </pre>
518    
519     <p>
520     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
521     </p>
522    
523     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
524     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
525     </pre>
526    
527     <p>
528 swift 1.17 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
529 swift 1.1 </p>
530    
531     </body>
532     </subsection>
533     </section>
534     <section>
535     <title>Mounting</title>
536     <body>
537    
538     <p>
539     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
540     time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
541     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
542     example:
543     </p>
544    
545     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
546     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
547     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
548     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
549     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
550 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
551 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
552 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
553 swift 1.1 </pre>
554    
555     <note>
556     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
557     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
558     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
559     </note>
560    
561     <p>
562 swift 1.5 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
563     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
564 swift 1.1 </p>
565    
566     <p>
567 swift 1.5 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
568 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
569     </p>
570    
571     </body>
572     </section>
573     </sections>

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