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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.5 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.4 2004/04/28 07:52:30 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Block Devices</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
18     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
19     devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
20     filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
21     and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22     </p>
23    
24     <p>
25     To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
26     probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
27     namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
28     </p>
29    
30     <p>
31     Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
32     use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
33     whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
34     address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
35     512-byte blocks.
36     </p>
37    
38     <p>
39     Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
40     SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
41     and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
42     instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
43     <path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
44     </p>
45    
46     </body>
47     </subsection>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Partitions</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
54     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
55     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
56     <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
57     </p>
58    
59     <p>
60     The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
61     <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
62     first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
63     </p>
64    
65     <p>
66     The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
67     slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
68     </p>
69    
70     <p>
71     Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
72     disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
73     eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
74     reserved.
75     </p>
76    
77     </body>
78     </subsection>
79     </section>
80     <section>
81     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
82     <subsection>
83     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
84     <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
88     the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
89     IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
90     </p>
91    
92     <p>
93     Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
94     recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
95     </p>
96    
97     <table>
98     <tr>
99     <th>Partition</th>
100     <th>Filesystem</th>
101     <th>Size</th>
102     <th>Mount Point</th>
103     <th>Description</th>
104     </tr>
105     <tr>
106     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
107     <ti>ext3</ti>
108     <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
109     <ti>/</ti>
110 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
111     Root partition. For all sparc32 systems, and sparc64 systems with older
112     OBP versions, this <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first
113     partition on the disk.
114     </ti>
115 swift 1.1 </tr>
116     <tr>
117     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
118     <ti>swap</ti>
119     <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
120     <ti>none</ti>
121 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
122     Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
123     MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.
124     </ti>
125 swift 1.1 </tr>
126     <tr>
127     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
128     <ti>none</ti>
129     <ti>Whole disk</ti>
130     <ti>none</ti>
131     <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
132     </tr>
133     <tr>
134     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
135     <ti>ext3</ti>
136     <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
137     <ti>/usr</ti>
138 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
139     /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
140     is also used for portage data.
141     </ti>
142 swift 1.1 </tr>
143     <tr>
144     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
145     <ti>ext3</ti>
146     <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
147     <ti>/var</ti>
148 bennyc 1.3 <ti>
149     /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default portage uses
150     this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
151     applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
152     of temporary space here when building.
153     </ti>
154 swift 1.1 </tr>
155     <tr>
156     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
157     <ti>ext3</ti>
158     <ti>remaining space</ti>
159     <ti>/home</ti>
160     <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
161     </tr>
162     </table>
163    
164     </body>
165     </subsection>
166     </section>
167    
168     <section id="fdisk">
169     <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
170     <subsection>
171     <body>
172    
173     <p>
174     The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
175     previously, namely:
176     </p>
177    
178     <table>
179     <tr>
180     <th>Partition</th>
181     <th>Description</th>
182     </tr>
183     <tr>
184     <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
185     <ti>/</ti>
186     </tr>
187     <tr>
188     <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
189     <ti>swap</ti>
190     </tr>
191     <tr>
192     <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
193     <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
194     </tr>
195     <tr>
196     <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
197     <ti>/usr</ti>
198     </tr>
199     <tr>
200     <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
201     <ti>/var</ti>
202     </tr>
203     <tr>
204     <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
205     <ti>/home</ti>
206     </tr>
207     </table>
208    
209     <p>
210     Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
211     entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems.
212     </p>
213    
214     </body>
215     </subsection>
216     <subsection>
217     <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
218     <body>
219    
220     <p>
221     Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
222     </p>
223    
224     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
225     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
226     </pre>
227    
228     <p>
229     You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
230     </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
233     Command (m for help):
234     </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237     To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
238     </p>
239    
240     <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
241     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
242    
243     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
244     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
245    
246     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
247     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
248     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
249     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
250     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
251     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
252     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
253     </pre>
254    
255     <p>
256     Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
257     using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
258     to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
259     </p>
260    
261     <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
262     Command (m for help): s
263     Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
264     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
265     content won't be recoverable.
266    
267     Drive type
268     ? auto configure
269     0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
270     a Quantum ProDrive 80S
271     b Quantum ProDrive 105S
272     c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
273     d IBM DPES-31080
274     e IBM DORS-32160
275     f IBM DNES-318350
276     g SEAGATE ST34371
277     h SUN0104
278     i SUN0207
279     j SUN0327
280     k SUN0340
281     l SUN0424
282     m SUN0535
283     n SUN0669
284     o SUN1.0G
285     p SUN1.05
286     q SUN1.3G
287     r SUN2.1G
288     s IOMEGA Jaz
289     Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
290     Heads (1-1024, default 64):
291     Using default value 64
292     Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
293     Using default value 32
294     Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
295     Using default value 8635
296     Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
297     Using default value 2
298     Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
299     Using default value 8637
300     Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
301     Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
302     Using default value 1
303     Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
304     Using default value 0
305     </pre>
306    
307     <p>
308     You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
309     'auto configure' option does not usually work.
310     </p>
311    
312     </body>
313     </subsection>
314     <subsection>
315     <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
316     <body>
317    
318     <p>
319     It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
320     Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
321     delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
322     </p>
323    
324     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
325     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
326     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
327     </pre>
328    
329     <p>
330     <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
331     this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
332     instructions above.
333     </p>
334    
335     <p>
336     After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
337     partition layout similar to the following:
338     </p>
339    
340     <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
341     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
342    
343     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
344     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
345    
346     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
347     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
348     </pre>
349    
350    
351     </body>
352     </subsection>
353    
354     <subsection>
355     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
356     <body>
357    
358     <p>
359     We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
360     new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for the
361     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c>
362 neysx 1.2 to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the entire root
363 swift 1.1 partition must be contained entirely within the first 2GBytes of the disk.
364     You can see output from these steps below:
365     </p>
366    
367 neysx 1.2 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
368 swift 1.1 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
369     Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
370     First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
371     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
372     </pre>
373    
374     <p>
375     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
376     </p>
377    
378     <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
379     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
380    
381     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
382     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
383    
384     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
385     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
386     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
387     </pre>
388 neysx 1.2
389 swift 1.1 </body>
390     </subsection>
391     <subsection>
392     <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
393     <body>
394    
395     <p>
396     Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
397     partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
398     in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
399     the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
400     you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
401     <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
402     steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
403     this:
404     </p>
405    
406     <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
407     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
408    
409     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
410     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
411    
412     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
413     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
414     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
415     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
416     </pre>
417    
418     </body>
419     </subsection>
420     <subsection>
421     <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
422     <body>
423    
424     <p>
425     Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
426     type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
427     third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
428     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
429     <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
430     for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
431     you're done, you should see something like this:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
435     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
436    
437     Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
438     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
439    
440     Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
441     /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
442     /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
443     /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
444     /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
445     /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
446     /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
447     </pre>
448    
449     </body>
450     </subsection>
451     <subsection>
452     <title>Save and Exit</title>
453     <body>
454    
455     <p>
456     To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
457     </p>
458    
459     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
460     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
461     </pre>
462    
463     <p>
464     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
465     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
466     </p>
467    
468     </body>
469     </subsection>
470     </section>
471     <section id="filesystems">
472     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
473     <subsection>
474     <title>Introduction</title>
475     <body>
476    
477     <p>
478     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
479     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
480     used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
481     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
482     Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
483     </p>
484    
485     </body>
486     </subsection>
487     <subsection>
488     <title>Filesystems?</title>
489     <body>
490    
491     <p>
492     Several filesystems are available, a few of which are known to be stable on the
493     SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
494     Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
495     </p>
496    
497     <p>
498     <b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
499     journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
500     can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
501     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
502     startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
503     counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
504     system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
505     </p>
506    
507     <p>
508     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
509     metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
510     modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 has an additional hashed
511     b-tree indexing option that enables high performance in almost all situations.
512     Ext3 makes an excellent and reliable alternative to ext2.
513     </p>
514    
515     <p>
516     <b>ReiserFS</b> works only partially on sparc64 systems and is therefore not
517     recommended for general use. <b>XFS</b> should be avoided, as it is known to
518     have many problems on SPARCs and could ruin your data. Another journaling
519     filesystem, <b>JFS</b>, is not supported. Regardless of your decision for
520     filesystems, the bootloader requires that the root partition be either ext2 or
521     ext3."
522     </p>
523    
524     </body>
525     </subsection>
526     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
527     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
528     <body>
529    
530     <p>
531     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
532     filesystem are available:
533     </p>
534    
535     <table>
536     <tr>
537     <th>Filesystem</th>
538     <th>Creation Command</th>
539     </tr>
540     <tr>
541     <ti>ext2</ti>
542     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
543     </tr>
544     <tr>
545     <ti>ext3</ti>
546     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
547     </tr>
548     <tr>
549     <ti>ext3 with hashed b-tree indexing (2.6 kernels only)</ti>
550     <ti><c>mke2fs -j -O dir_index</c></ti>
551     </tr>
552 swift 1.4 <tr>
553     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
554     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
555     </tr>
556 swift 1.1 </table>
557    
558     <p>
559     For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
560     example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
561     <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
562     and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
563     </p>
564    
565     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
566     # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
567     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
568     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
569     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
570     </pre>
571    
572     </body>
573     </subsection>
574     <subsection>
575     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
576     <body>
577    
578     <p>
579     <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
580     </p>
581    
582     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
583     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
584     </pre>
585    
586     <p>
587     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
588     </p>
589    
590     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
591     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
592     </pre>
593    
594     <p>
595     Create and activate the swap now.
596     </p>
597    
598     </body>
599     </subsection>
600     </section>
601     <section>
602     <title>Mounting</title>
603     <body>
604    
605     <p>
606     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
607     time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
608     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
609     example:
610     </p>
611    
612     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
613     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
614     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
615     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
616     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
617 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
618 swift 1.1 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
619 neysx 1.2 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
620 swift 1.1 </pre>
621    
622     <note>
623     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
624     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
625     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
626     </note>
627    
628     <p>
629 swift 1.5 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
630     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
631 swift 1.1 </p>
632    
633     <p>
634 swift 1.5 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
635 swift 1.1 Installation Files</uri>.
636     </p>
637    
638     </body>
639     </section>
640     </sections>

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