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Adding Gentoo/SPARC instructions atomically

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.4 2004/04/05 08:17:49 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Block Devices</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
18 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
19 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
20 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
21 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22 </p>
23
24 <p>
25 To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
26 probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
27 namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
28 </p>
29
30 <p>
31 Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
32 use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
33 whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
34 address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
35 512-byte blocks.
36 </p>
37
38 <p>
39 Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
40 SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
41 and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
42 instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
43 <path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
44 </p>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Partitions</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
54 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
55 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
56 <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
61 <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
62 first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
63 </p>
64
65 <p>
66 The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
67 slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
68 </p>
69
70 <p>
71 Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
72 disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
73 eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
74 reserved.
75 </p>
76
77 </body>
78 </subsection>
79 </section>
80 <section>
81 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
82 <subsection>
83 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
88 the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
89 IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
90 </p>
91
92 <p>
93 Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
94 recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
95 </p>
96
97 <table>
98 <tr>
99 <th>Partition</th>
100 <th>Filesystem</th>
101 <th>Size</th>
102 <th>Mount Point</th>
103 <th>Description</th>
104 </tr>
105 <tr>
106 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
107 <ti>ext3</ti>
108 <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
109 <ti>/</ti>
110 <ti>Root partition. For all sparc32 systems, and sparc64 systems with older
111 OBP versions, this <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first
112 partition on the disk.</ti>
113 </tr>
114 <tr>
115 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
116 <ti>swap</ti>
117 <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
118 <ti>none</ti>
119 <ti>Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
120 MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.</ti>
121 </tr>
122 <tr>
123 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
124 <ti>none</ti>
125 <ti>Whole disk</ti>
126 <ti>none</ti>
127 <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
131 <ti>ext3</ti>
132 <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
133 <ti>/usr</ti>
134 <ti>/usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
135 is also used for portage data.</ti>
136 </tr>
137 <tr>
138 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
139 <ti>ext3</ti>
140 <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
141 <ti>/var</ti>
142 <ti>/var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default portage uses
143 this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
144 applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
145 of temporary space here when building.</ti>
146 </tr>
147 <tr>
148 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
149 <ti>ext3</ti>
150 <ti>remaining space</ti>
151 <ti>/home</ti>
152 <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
153 </tr>
154 </table>
155
156 </body>
157 </subsection>
158 </section>
159
160 <section id="fdisk">
161 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
162 <subsection>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>
166 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
167 previously, namely:
168 </p>
169
170 <table>
171 <tr>
172 <th>Partition</th>
173 <th>Description</th>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
177 <ti>/</ti>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
181 <ti>swap</ti>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
185 <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
189 <ti>/usr</ti>
190 </tr>
191 <tr>
192 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
193 <ti>/var</ti>
194 </tr>
195 <tr>
196 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
197 <ti>/home</ti>
198 </tr>
199 </table>
200
201 <p>
202 Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
203 entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems.
204 </p>
205
206 </body>
207 </subsection>
208 <subsection>
209 <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
210 <body>
211
212 <p>
213 Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
214 </p>
215
216 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
217 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
218 </pre>
219
220 <p>
221 You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
225 Command (m for help):
226 </pre>
227
228 <p>
229 To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
230 </p>
231
232 <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
233 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
234
235 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
236 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
237
238 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
239 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
240 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
241 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
242 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
243 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
244 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
245 </pre>
246
247 <p>
248 Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
249 using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
250 to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
254 Command (m for help): s
255 Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
256 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
257 content won't be recoverable.
258
259 Drive type
260 ? auto configure
261 0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
262 a Quantum ProDrive 80S
263 b Quantum ProDrive 105S
264 c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
265 d IBM DPES-31080
266 e IBM DORS-32160
267 f IBM DNES-318350
268 g SEAGATE ST34371
269 h SUN0104
270 i SUN0207
271 j SUN0327
272 k SUN0340
273 l SUN0424
274 m SUN0535
275 n SUN0669
276 o SUN1.0G
277 p SUN1.05
278 q SUN1.3G
279 r SUN2.1G
280 s IOMEGA Jaz
281 Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
282 Heads (1-1024, default 64):
283 Using default value 64
284 Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
285 Using default value 32
286 Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
287 Using default value 8635
288 Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
289 Using default value 2
290 Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
291 Using default value 8637
292 Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
293 Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
294 Using default value 1
295 Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
296 Using default value 0
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
301 'auto configure' option does not usually work.
302 </p>
303
304 </body>
305 </subsection>
306 <subsection>
307 <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
308 <body>
309
310 <p>
311 It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
312 Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
313 delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
314 </p>
315
316 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
317 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
318 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
323 this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
324 instructions above.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
329 partition layout similar to the following:
330 </p>
331
332 <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
333 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
334
335 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
336 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
337
338 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
339 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
340 </pre>
341
342
343 </body>
344 </subsection>
345
346 <subsection>
347 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
352 new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for the
353 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c>
354 to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the entire boot
355 partition must be contained entirely within the first 2GBytes of the disk.
356 You can see output from these steps below:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Creating a boot partition">
360 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
361 Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
362 First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
363 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
371 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
372
373 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
374 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
375
376 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
377 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
378 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
379 </pre>
380 </body>
381 </subsection>
382 <subsection>
383 <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
384 <body>
385
386 <p>
387 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
388 partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
389 in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
390 the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
391 you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
392 <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
393 steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
394 this:
395 </p>
396
397 <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
398 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
399
400 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
401 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
402
403 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
404 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
405 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
406 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
407 </pre>
408
409 </body>
410 </subsection>
411 <subsection>
412 <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
413 <body>
414
415 <p>
416 Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
417 type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
418 third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
419 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
420 <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
421 for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
422 you're done, you should see something like this:
423 </p>
424
425 <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
426 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
427
428 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
429 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
430
431 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
432 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
433 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
434 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
435 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
436 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
437 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
438 </pre>
439
440 </body>
441 </subsection>
442 <subsection>
443 <title>Save and Exit</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <p>
447 To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
451 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>
455 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
456 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
457 </p>
458
459 </body>
460 </subsection>
461 </section>
462 <section id="filesystems">
463 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
464 <subsection>
465 <title>Introduction</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <p>
469 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
470 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
471 used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
472 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
473 Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
474 </p>
475
476 </body>
477 </subsection>
478 <subsection>
479 <title>Filesystems?</title>
480 <body>
481
482 <p>
483 Several filesystems are available, a few of which are known to be stable on the
484 SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
485 Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
486 </p>
487
488 <p>
489 <b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
490 journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
491 can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
492 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
493 startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
494 counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
495 system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
496 </p>
497
498 <p>
499 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
500 metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
501 modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 has an additional hashed
502 b-tree indexing option that enables high performance in almost all situations.
503 Ext3 makes an excellent and reliable alternative to ext2.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 <b>ReiserFS</b> works only partially on sparc64 systems and is therefore not
508 recommended for general use. <b>XFS</b> should be avoided, as it is known to
509 have many problems on SPARCs and could ruin your data. Another journaling
510 filesystem, <b>JFS</b>, is not supported. Regardless of your decision for
511 filesystems, the bootloader requires that the root partition be either ext2 or
512 ext3."
513 </p>
514
515 </body>
516 </subsection>
517 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
518 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
519 <body>
520
521 <p>
522 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
523 filesystem are available:
524 </p>
525
526 <table>
527 <tr>
528 <th>Filesystem</th>
529 <th>Creation Command</th>
530 </tr>
531 <tr>
532 <ti>ext2</ti>
533 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
534 </tr>
535 <tr>
536 <ti>ext3</ti>
537 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
538 </tr>
539 <tr>
540 <ti>ext3 with hashed b-tree indexing (2.6 kernels only)</ti>
541 <ti><c>mke2fs -j -O dir_index</c></ti>
542 </tr>
543 </table>
544
545 <p>
546 For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
547 example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
548 <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
549 and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
553 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
554 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
555 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
556 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
557 </pre>
558
559 </body>
560 </subsection>
561 <subsection>
562 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
563 <body>
564
565 <p>
566 <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
567 </p>
568
569 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
570 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
571 </pre>
572
573 <p>
574 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
575 </p>
576
577 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
578 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
579 </pre>
580
581 <p>
582 Create and activate the swap now.
583 </p>
584
585 </body>
586 </subsection>
587 </section>
588 <section>
589 <title>Mounting</title>
590 <body>
591
592 <p>
593 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
594 time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
595 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
596 example:
597 </p>
598
599 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
600 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
601 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
602 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
603 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
604 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
605 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
606 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
607 </pre>
608
609 <note>
610 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
611 to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
612 This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
613 </note>
614
615 <p>
616 We also need to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the kernel)
617 on <path>/proc</path>. We first create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path>
618 mount point and then mount the filesystem:
619 </p>
620
621 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo/proc mount point">
622 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
623 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
624 </pre>
625
626 <p>
627 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
628 Installation Files</uri>.
629 </p>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 </sections>

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