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2006.1 networked docs are in. portage handbook still untouched per separate bugs. thanks to all the hard work, guys. blame me if something is wrong (and please fix quickly) :)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.24 2005/10/02 17:18:14 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.5</version> <date>2005-10-02</date>
12
13 <section>
14 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
15 <subsection>
16 <title>Block Devices</title>
17 <body>
18
19 <p>
20 We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
21 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
22 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
23 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
24 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
25 </p>
26
27 <p>
28 To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
29 probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
30 namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
31 </p>
32
33 <p>
34 Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
35 use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
36 whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
37 address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
38 512-byte blocks.
39 </p>
40
41 <p>
42 Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
43 SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
44 and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
45 instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
46 <path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
47 </p>
48
49 </body>
50 </subsection>
51 <subsection>
52 <title>Partitions</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
57 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
58 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
59 <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
64 <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
65 first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
66 </p>
67
68 <p>
69 The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
70 slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
71 </p>
72
73 <p>
74 Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
75 disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
76 eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
77 reserved.
78 </p>
79
80 </body>
81 </subsection>
82 </section>
83 <section>
84 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
85 <subsection>
86 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
87 <body>
88
89 <p>
90 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
91 the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
92 IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
97 recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
98 </p>
99
100 <table>
101 <tr>
102 <th>Partition</th>
103 <th>Filesystem</th>
104 <th>Size</th>
105 <th>Mount Point</th>
106 <th>Description</th>
107 </tr>
108 <tr>
109 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
110 <ti>ext3</ti>
111 <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
112 <ti>/</ti>
113 <ti>
114 Root partition. For sun4c, sun4d and sun4m systems, some PROMs require
115 this partition to be less than 1 GBytes in size and the first
116 partition on the disk.
117 </ti>
118 </tr>
119 <tr>
120 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
121 <ti>swap</ti>
122 <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
123 <ti>none</ti>
124 <ti>
125 Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
126 MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.
127 </ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
131 <ti>none</ti>
132 <ti>Whole disk</ti>
133 <ti>none</ti>
134 <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
135 </tr>
136 <tr>
137 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
138 <ti>ext3</ti>
139 <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
140 <ti>/usr</ti>
141 <ti>
142 /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
143 is also used for Portage data (which takes around 500 Mbyte excluding
144 source code).
145 </ti>
146 </tr>
147 <tr>
148 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
149 <ti>ext3</ti>
150 <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
151 <ti>/var</ti>
152 <ti>
153 /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default Portage uses
154 this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
155 applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
156 of temporary space here when building.
157 </ti>
158 </tr>
159 <tr>
160 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
161 <ti>ext3</ti>
162 <ti>remaining space</ti>
163 <ti>/home</ti>
164 <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
165 </tr>
166 </table>
167
168 </body>
169 </subsection>
170 </section>
171
172 <section id="fdisk">
173 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
174 <subsection>
175 <body>
176
177 <p>
178 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
179 previously, namely:
180 </p>
181
182 <table>
183 <tr>
184 <th>Partition</th>
185 <th>Description</th>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
189 <ti>/</ti>
190 </tr>
191 <tr>
192 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
193 <ti>swap</ti>
194 </tr>
195 <tr>
196 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
197 <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
198 </tr>
199 <tr>
200 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
201 <ti>/usr</ti>
202 </tr>
203 <tr>
204 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
205 <ti>/var</ti>
206 </tr>
207 <tr>
208 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
209 <ti>/home</ti>
210 </tr>
211 </table>
212
213 <p>
214 Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
215 entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems. There is also
216 a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </subsection>
221 <subsection>
222 <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
223 <body>
224
225 <p>
226 Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
230 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
231 </pre>
232
233 <p>
234 You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
235 </p>
236
237 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
238 Command (m for help):
239 </pre>
240
241 <p>
242 To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
243 </p>
244
245 <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
246 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
247
248 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
249 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
250
251 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
252 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
253 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
254 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
255 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
256 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
257 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
262 using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
263 to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
264 </p>
265
266 <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
267 Command (m for help): s
268 Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
269 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
270 content won't be recoverable.
271
272 Drive type
273 ? auto configure
274 0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
275 a Quantum ProDrive 80S
276 b Quantum ProDrive 105S
277 c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
278 d IBM DPES-31080
279 e IBM DORS-32160
280 f IBM DNES-318350
281 g SEAGATE ST34371
282 h SUN0104
283 i SUN0207
284 j SUN0327
285 k SUN0340
286 l SUN0424
287 m SUN0535
288 n SUN0669
289 o SUN1.0G
290 p SUN1.05
291 q SUN1.3G
292 r SUN2.1G
293 s IOMEGA Jaz
294 Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
295 Heads (1-1024, default 64):
296 Using default value 64
297 Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
298 Using default value 32
299 Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
300 Using default value 8635
301 Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
302 Using default value 2
303 Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
304 Using default value 8637
305 Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
306 Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
307 Using default value 1
308 Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
309 Using default value 0
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
314 'auto configure' option does not usually work.
315 </p>
316
317 </body>
318 </subsection>
319 <subsection>
320 <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
321 <body>
322
323 <p>
324 It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
325 Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
326 delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
330 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
331 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>
335 <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
336 this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
337 instructions above.
338 </p>
339
340 <p>
341 After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
342 partition layout similar to the following:
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
346 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
347
348 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
349 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
350
351 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
352 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
353 </pre>
354
355
356 </body>
357 </subsection>
358
359 <subsection>
360 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
365 new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for
366 the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
367 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the
368 entire root partition fits within the first 2GBytes of the disk. You can see
369 output from these steps below:
370 </p>
371
372 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
373 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
374 Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
375 First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
376 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
377 </pre>
378
379 <p>
380 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
381 </p>
382
383 <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
384 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
385
386 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
387 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
388
389 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
390 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
391 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
392 </pre>
393
394 </body>
395 </subsection>
396 <subsection>
397 <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
402 partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
403 in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
404 the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
405 you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
406 <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
407 steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
408 this:
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
412 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
413
414 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
415 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
416
417 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
418 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
419 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
420 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
421 </pre>
422
423 </body>
424 </subsection>
425 <subsection>
426 <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
431 type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
432 third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
433 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
434 <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
435 for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
436 you're done, you should see something like this:
437 </p>
438
439 <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
440 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
441
442 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
443 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
444
445 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
446 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
447 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
448 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
449 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
450 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
451 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
452 </pre>
453
454 </body>
455 </subsection>
456 <subsection>
457 <title>Save and Exit</title>
458 <body>
459
460 <p>
461 To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
465 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
466 </pre>
467
468 <p>
469 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
470 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
471 </p>
472
473 </body>
474 </subsection>
475 </section>
476 <section id="filesystems">
477 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
478 <subsection>
479 <title>Introduction</title>
480 <body>
481
482 <p>
483 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
484 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
485 used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
486 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
487 Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
488 </p>
489
490 </body>
491 </subsection>
492 <subsection>
493 <title>Filesystems?</title>
494 <body>
495
496 <p>
497 Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the
498 SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
499 Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
500 </p>
501
502 <p>
503 <b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
504 journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
505 can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
506 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
507 startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
508 counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
509 system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
514 metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
515 modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 makes an excellent and
516 reliable alternative to ext2.
517 </p>
518
519 </body>
520 </subsection>
521 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
522 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
523 <body>
524
525 <p>
526 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
527 filesystem are available:
528 </p>
529
530 <table>
531 <tr>
532 <th>Filesystem</th>
533 <th>Creation Command</th>
534 </tr>
535 <tr>
536 <ti>ext2</ti>
537 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
538 </tr>
539 <tr>
540 <ti>ext3</ti>
541 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
542 </tr>
543 </table>
544
545 <p>
546 For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
547 example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
548 <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
549 and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
553 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
554 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
555 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
556 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
557 </pre>
558
559 </body>
560 </subsection>
561 <subsection>
562 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
563 <body>
564
565 <p>
566 <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
567 </p>
568
569 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
570 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
571 </pre>
572
573 <p>
574 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
575 </p>
576
577 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
578 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
579 </pre>
580
581 <p>
582 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
583 </p>
584
585 </body>
586 </subsection>
587 </section>
588 <section>
589 <title>Mounting</title>
590 <body>
591
592 <p>
593 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
594 time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
595 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
596 example:
597 </p>
598
599 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
600 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
601 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
602 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
603 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
604 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
605 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
606 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
607 </pre>
608
609 <note>
610 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
611 to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
612 This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
613 </note>
614
615 <p>
616 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
617 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
618 </p>
619
620 <p>
621 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
622 Installation Files</uri>.
623 </p>
624
625 </body>
626 </section>
627 </sections>

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