/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.7 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Mon Aug 30 17:44:00 2004 UTC (9 years, 7 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.6: +2 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#62186: Fixed language mistakes all over the place thanks to John Richards

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.6 2004/08/29 12:17:07 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Block Devices</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
18 and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
19 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
20 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
21 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
22 </p>
23
24 <p>
25 To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
26 probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
27 namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
28 </p>
29
30 <p>
31 Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
32 use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
33 whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
34 address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
35 512-byte blocks.
36 </p>
37
38 <p>
39 Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
40 SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
41 and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
42 instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
43 <path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
44 </p>
45
46 </body>
47 </subsection>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Partitions</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
54 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
55 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
56 <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
61 <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the
62 first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
63 </p>
64
65 <p>
66 The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
67 slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
68 </p>
69
70 <p>
71 Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
72 disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
73 eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
74 reserved.
75 </p>
76
77 </body>
78 </subsection>
79 </section>
80 <section>
81 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
82 <subsection>
83 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme,
88 the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For
89 IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
90 </p>
91
92 <p>
93 Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
94 recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
95 </p>
96
97 <table>
98 <tr>
99 <th>Partition</th>
100 <th>Filesystem</th>
101 <th>Size</th>
102 <th>Mount Point</th>
103 <th>Description</th>
104 </tr>
105 <tr>
106 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
107 <ti>ext3</ti>
108 <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
109 <ti>/</ti>
110 <ti>
111 Root partition. For all sparc32 systems, and sparc64 systems with older
112 OBP versions, this <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first
113 partition on the disk.
114 </ti>
115 </tr>
116 <tr>
117 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
118 <ti>swap</ti>
119 <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
120 <ti>none</ti>
121 <ti>
122 Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
123 MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.
124 </ti>
125 </tr>
126 <tr>
127 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
128 <ti>none</ti>
129 <ti>Whole disk</ti>
130 <ti>none</ti>
131 <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
135 <ti>ext3</ti>
136 <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
137 <ti>/usr</ti>
138 <ti>
139 /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
140 is also used for portage data.
141 </ti>
142 </tr>
143 <tr>
144 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
145 <ti>ext3</ti>
146 <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
147 <ti>/var</ti>
148 <ti>
149 /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default portage uses
150 this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
151 applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
152 of temporary space here when building.
153 </ti>
154 </tr>
155 <tr>
156 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
157 <ti>ext3</ti>
158 <ti>remaining space</ti>
159 <ti>/home</ti>
160 <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
161 </tr>
162 </table>
163
164 </body>
165 </subsection>
166 </section>
167
168 <section id="fdisk">
169 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
170 <subsection>
171 <body>
172
173 <p>
174 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
175 previously, namely:
176 </p>
177
178 <table>
179 <tr>
180 <th>Partition</th>
181 <th>Description</th>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
185 <ti>/</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
189 <ti>swap</ti>
190 </tr>
191 <tr>
192 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
193 <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
194 </tr>
195 <tr>
196 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
197 <ti>/usr</ti>
198 </tr>
199 <tr>
200 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
201 <ti>/var</ti>
202 </tr>
203 <tr>
204 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
205 <ti>/home</ti>
206 </tr>
207 </table>
208
209 <p>
210 Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
211 entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems. There is also
212 a 15-partition limit for SCSI.
213 </p>
214
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 <subsection>
218 <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
223 </p>
224
225 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
226 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
227 </pre>
228
229 <p>
230 You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
231 </p>
232
233 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
234 Command (m for help):
235 </pre>
236
237 <p>
238 To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
239 </p>
240
241 <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
242 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
243
244 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
245 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
246
247 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
248 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
249 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
250 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
251 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
252 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
253 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
258 using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
259 to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
263 Command (m for help): s
264 Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
265 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
266 content won't be recoverable.
267
268 Drive type
269 ? auto configure
270 0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
271 a Quantum ProDrive 80S
272 b Quantum ProDrive 105S
273 c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
274 d IBM DPES-31080
275 e IBM DORS-32160
276 f IBM DNES-318350
277 g SEAGATE ST34371
278 h SUN0104
279 i SUN0207
280 j SUN0327
281 k SUN0340
282 l SUN0424
283 m SUN0535
284 n SUN0669
285 o SUN1.0G
286 p SUN1.05
287 q SUN1.3G
288 r SUN2.1G
289 s IOMEGA Jaz
290 Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
291 Heads (1-1024, default 64):
292 Using default value 64
293 Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
294 Using default value 32
295 Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
296 Using default value 8635
297 Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
298 Using default value 2
299 Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
300 Using default value 8637
301 Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
302 Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
303 Using default value 1
304 Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
305 Using default value 0
306 </pre>
307
308 <p>
309 You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
310 'auto configure' option does not usually work.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </subsection>
315 <subsection>
316 <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
321 Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
322 delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
326 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
327 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
328 </pre>
329
330 <p>
331 <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
332 this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
333 instructions above.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
338 partition layout similar to the following:
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
342 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
343
344 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
345 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
346
347 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
348 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
349 </pre>
350
351
352 </body>
353 </subsection>
354
355 <subsection>
356 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
357 <body>
358
359 <p>
360 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
361 new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for the
362 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c>
363 to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the entire root
364 partition must be contained entirely within the first 2GBytes of the disk.
365 You can see output from these steps below:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
369 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
370 Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
371 First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
372 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 <p>
376 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
380 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
381
382 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
383 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
384
385 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
386 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
387 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
388 </pre>
389
390 </body>
391 </subsection>
392 <subsection>
393 <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
398 partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
399 in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
400 the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
401 you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
402 <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
403 steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
404 this:
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
408 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
409
410 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
411 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
412
413 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
414 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
415 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
416 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
417 </pre>
418
419 </body>
420 </subsection>
421 <subsection>
422 <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
423 <body>
424
425 <p>
426 Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
427 type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
428 third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
429 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
430 <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
431 for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
432 you're done, you should see something like this:
433 </p>
434
435 <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
436 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
437
438 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
439 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
440
441 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
442 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
443 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
444 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
445 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
446 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
447 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
448 </pre>
449
450 </body>
451 </subsection>
452 <subsection>
453 <title>Save and Exit</title>
454 <body>
455
456 <p>
457 To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
461 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
466 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
467 </p>
468
469 </body>
470 </subsection>
471 </section>
472 <section id="filesystems">
473 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
474 <subsection>
475 <title>Introduction</title>
476 <body>
477
478 <p>
479 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
480 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
481 used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
482 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
483 Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
484 </p>
485
486 </body>
487 </subsection>
488 <subsection>
489 <title>Filesystems?</title>
490 <body>
491
492 <p>
493 Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the
494 SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
495 Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
496 </p>
497
498 <p>
499 <b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
500 journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
501 can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
502 journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
503 startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
504 counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
505 system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
506 </p>
507
508 <p>
509 <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
510 metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
511 modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 has an additional hashed
512 b-tree indexing option that enables high performance in almost all situations.
513 Ext3 makes an excellent and reliable alternative to ext2.
514 </p>
515
516 <p>
517 <b>ReiserFS</b> works only partially on sparc64 systems and is therefore not
518 recommended for general use. <b>XFS</b> should be avoided, as it is known to
519 have many problems on SPARCs and could ruin your data. Another journaling
520 filesystem, <b>JFS</b>, is not supported. Regardless of your decision for
521 filesystems, the bootloader requires that the root partition be either ext2 or
522 ext3."
523 </p>
524
525 </body>
526 </subsection>
527 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
528 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
529 <body>
530
531 <p>
532 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
533 filesystem are available:
534 </p>
535
536 <table>
537 <tr>
538 <th>Filesystem</th>
539 <th>Creation Command</th>
540 </tr>
541 <tr>
542 <ti>ext2</ti>
543 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
544 </tr>
545 <tr>
546 <ti>ext3</ti>
547 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
548 </tr>
549 <tr>
550 <ti>ext3 with hashed b-tree indexing (2.6 kernels only)</ti>
551 <ti><c>mke2fs -j -O dir_index</c></ti>
552 </tr>
553 <tr>
554 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
555 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
556 </tr>
557 </table>
558
559 <p>
560 For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
561 example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
562 <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
563 and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
564 </p>
565
566 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
567 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
568 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
569 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
570 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
571 </pre>
572
573 </body>
574 </subsection>
575 <subsection>
576 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
577 <body>
578
579 <p>
580 <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
581 </p>
582
583 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
584 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
585 </pre>
586
587 <p>
588 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
589 </p>
590
591 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
592 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
593 </pre>
594
595 <p>
596 Create and activate the swap now.
597 </p>
598
599 </body>
600 </subsection>
601 </section>
602 <section>
603 <title>Mounting</title>
604 <body>
605
606 <p>
607 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
608 time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
609 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
610 example:
611 </p>
612
613 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
614 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
615 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
616 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
617 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
618 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
619 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
620 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
621 </pre>
622
623 <note>
624 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
625 to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
626 This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
627 </note>
628
629 <p>
630 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
631 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
632 </p>
633
634 <p>
635 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
636 Installation Files</uri>.
637 </p>
638
639 </body>
640 </section>
641 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20