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Revision 1.32 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri May 2 08:04:23 2008 UTC (6 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
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Changes since 1.31: +6 -8 lines
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As announced on the list (http://archives.gentoo.org/gentoo-doc/msg_e721be404c6a5ae8ce5c5bf02f45381c.xml), assume all arches are using the libata framework, so sd* everywhere. includes updating block device and partition descriptions. also added a new included file for boot config (starting sshd, hdparm, etc). synced up several wayward files, including sparc. also changed/dropped usage of some now useless keys, since everyone's using sd*. lots of intensive, invasive changes. and i never even used sed once.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.31 2008/04/01 08:53:46 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>5.1</version>
12 <date>2008-05-02</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16
17 <subsection>
18 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19 </subsection>
20
21 <subsection>
22 <title>Partitions</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p>
26 Although it is theoretically possible to use the entire disk to house your Linux
27 system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
28 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are known as
29 <e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
30 </p>
31
32 <p>
33 The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
34 <path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on.
35 </p>
36
37 <p>
38 The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
39 slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
40 </p>
41
42 <p>
43 Users who are used to the DOS partitioning scheme should note that Sun
44 disklabels do not have "primary" and "extended" partitions. Instead, up to
45 eight partitions are available per drive, with the third of these being
46 reserved.
47 </p>
48
49 </body>
50 </subsection>
51 </section>
52 <section>
53 <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
54 <subsection>
55 <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
56 <body>
57
58 <p>
59 If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme, the table below
60 suggests a suitable starting point for most systems.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
65 recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
66 </p>
67
68 <table>
69 <tr>
70 <th>Partition</th>
71 <th>Filesystem</th>
72 <th>Size</th>
73 <th>Mount Point</th>
74 <th>Description</th>
75 </tr>
76 <tr>
77 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
78 <ti>ext3</ti>
79 <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
80 <ti>/</ti>
81 <ti>
82 Root partition. For sparc64 systems with older OBP versions, this
83 <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first partition on the
84 disk.
85 </ti>
86 </tr>
87 <tr>
88 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
89 <ti>swap</ti>
90 <ti>512 MBytes</ti>
91 <ti>none</ti>
92 <ti>
93 Swap partition. For bootstrap and certain larger compiles, at least 512
94 MBytes of RAM (including swap) is required.
95 </ti>
96 </tr>
97 <tr>
98 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
99 <ti>none</ti>
100 <ti>Whole disk</ti>
101 <ti>none</ti>
102 <ti>Whole disk partition. This is required on SPARC systems.</ti>
103 </tr>
104 <tr>
105 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
106 <ti>ext3</ti>
107 <ti>at least 2 GBytes</ti>
108 <ti>/usr</ti>
109 <ti>
110 /usr partition. Applications are installed here. By default this partition
111 is also used for Portage data (which takes around 500 Mbyte excluding
112 source code).
113 </ti>
114 </tr>
115 <tr>
116 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
117 <ti>ext3</ti>
118 <ti>at least 1GByte</ti>
119 <ti>/var</ti>
120 <ti>
121 /var partition. Used for program-generated data. By default Portage uses
122 this partition for temporary space whilst compiling. Certain larger
123 applications such as Mozilla and OpenOffice.org can require over 1 GByte
124 of temporary space here when building.
125 </ti>
126 </tr>
127 <tr>
128 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
129 <ti>ext3</ti>
130 <ti>remaining space</ti>
131 <ti>/home</ti>
132 <ti>/home partition. Used for users' home directories.</ti>
133 </tr>
134 </table>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 </section>
139
140 <section id="fdisk">
141 <title>Using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
142 <subsection>
143 <body>
144
145 <p>
146 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout described
147 previously, namely:
148 </p>
149
150 <table>
151 <tr>
152 <th>Partition</th>
153 <th>Description</th>
154 </tr>
155 <tr>
156 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
157 <ti>/</ti>
158 </tr>
159 <tr>
160 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
161 <ti>swap</ti>
162 </tr>
163 <tr>
164 <ti>/dev/sda3</ti>
165 <ti>whole disk slice</ti>
166 </tr>
167 <tr>
168 <ti>/dev/sda4</ti>
169 <ti>/usr</ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <ti>/dev/sda5</ti>
173 <ti>/var</ti>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <ti>/dev/sda6</ti>
177 <ti>/home</ti>
178 </tr>
179 </table>
180
181 <p>
182 Change the partition layout as required. Remember to keep the root partition
183 entirely within the first 2 GBytes of the disk for older systems. There is also
184 a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
185 </p>
186
187 </body>
188 </subsection>
189 <subsection>
190 <title>Firing up fdisk</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 Start <c>fdisk</c> with your disk as argument:
195 </p>
196
197 <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
198 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 You should be greeted with the fdisk prompt:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
206 Command (m for help):
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>
210 To view the available partitions, type in <c>p</c>:
211 </p>
212
213 <pre caption="Listing available partitions">
214 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
215
216 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
217 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
218
219 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
220 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
221 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
222 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
223 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
224 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
225 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
226 </pre>
227
228 <p>
229 Note the <c>Sun disk label</c> in the output. If this is missing, the disk is
230 using the DOS-partitioning, not the Sun partitioning. In this case, use <c>s</c>
231 to ensure that the disk has a sun partition table:
232 </p>
233
234 <pre caption="Creating a Sun Disklabel">
235 Command (m for help): s
236 Building a new sun disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
237 until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
238 content won't be recoverable.
239
240 Drive type
241 ? auto configure
242 0 custom (with hardware detected defaults)
243 a Quantum ProDrive 80S
244 b Quantum ProDrive 105S
245 c CDC Wren IV 94171-344
246 d IBM DPES-31080
247 e IBM DORS-32160
248 f IBM DNES-318350
249 g SEAGATE ST34371
250 h SUN0104
251 i SUN0207
252 j SUN0327
253 k SUN0340
254 l SUN0424
255 m SUN0535
256 n SUN0669
257 o SUN1.0G
258 p SUN1.05
259 q SUN1.3G
260 r SUN2.1G
261 s IOMEGA Jaz
262 Select type (? for auto, 0 for custom): <i>0</i>
263 Heads (1-1024, default 64):
264 Using default value 64
265 Sectors/track (1-1024, default 32):
266 Using default value 32
267 Cylinders (1-65535, default 8635):
268 Using default value 8635
269 Alternate cylinders (0-65535, default 2):
270 Using default value 2
271 Physical cylinders (0-65535, default 8637):
272 Using default value 8637
273 Rotation speed (rpm) (1-100000, default 5400): <i>10000</i>
274 Interleave factor (1-32, default 1):
275 Using default value 1
276 Extra sectors per cylinder (0-32, default 0):
277 Using default value 0
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 You can find the correct values in your disk's documentation. The
282 'auto configure' option does not usually work.
283 </p>
284
285 </body>
286 </subsection>
287 <subsection>
288 <title>Deleting Existing Partitions</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 It's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c> and hit
293 Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like to
294 delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/sda1</path>, you would type:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
298 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
299 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
300 </pre>
301
302 <p>
303 <e>You should not delete partition 3 (whole disk).</e> This is required. If
304 this partition does not exist, follow the "Creating a Sun Disklabel"
305 instructions above.
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 After deleting all partitions except the Whole disk slice, you should have a
310 partition layout similar to the following:
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="View an empty partition scheme">
314 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
315
316 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
317 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
318
319 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
320 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
321 </pre>
322
323
324 </body>
325 </subsection>
326
327 <subsection>
328 <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 We're ready to create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
333 new partition, then type <c>1</c> to create the partition. When prompted for
334 the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
335 <c>+512M</c> to create a partition <c>512MBytes</c> in size. Make sure that the
336 entire root partition fits within the first 2GBytes of the disk. You can see
337 output from these steps below:
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Creating a root partition">
341 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
342 Partition number (1-8): <i>1</i>
343 First cylinder (0-8635): <i>(press Enter)</i>
344 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-8635, default 8635): <i>+512M</i>
345 </pre>
346
347 <p>
348 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition printout:
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Listing the partition layout">
352 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
353
354 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
355 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
356
357 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
358 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
359 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
360 </pre>
361
362 </body>
363 </subsection>
364 <subsection>
365 <title>Creating a swap partition</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new
370 partition, then <c>2</c> to create the second partition, <path>/dev/sda2</path>
371 in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for
372 the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After
373 you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, and then type in
374 <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these
375 steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to
376 this:
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Listing of available partitions">
380 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
381
382 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
383 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
384
385 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
386 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
387 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
388 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
389 </pre>
390
391 </body>
392 </subsection>
393 <subsection>
394 <title>Creating the /usr, /var and /home partitions</title>
395 <body>
396
397 <p>
398 Finally, let's create the /usr, /var and /home partitions. As before,
399 type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then type <c>4</c> to create the
400 third partition, <path>/dev/sda4</path> in our case. When prompted for the
401 first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, enter
402 <c>+2048M</c> to create a partition 2 GBytes in size. Repeat this process
403 for <path>sda5</path> and <path>sda6</path>, using the desired sizes. Once
404 you're done, you should see something like this:
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption="Listing complete partition table">
408 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
409
410 Disk /dev/sda (Sun disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 8635 cylinders
411 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
412
413 Device Flag Start End Blocks Id System
414 /dev/sda1 0 488 499712 83 Linux native
415 /dev/sda2 488 976 499712 82 Linux swap
416 /dev/sda3 0 8635 8842240 5 Whole disk
417 /dev/sda4 976 1953 1000448 83 Linux native
418 /dev/sda5 1953 2144 195584 83 Linux native
419 /dev/sda6 2144 8635 6646784 83 Linux native
420 </pre>
421
422 </body>
423 </subsection>
424 <subsection>
425 <title>Save and Exit</title>
426 <body>
427
428 <p>
429 To save your partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>:
430 </p>
431
432 <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
433 Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
434 </pre>
435
436 <p>
437 Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
438 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
439 </p>
440
441 </body>
442 </subsection>
443 </section>
444 <section id="filesystems">
445 <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
446 <subsection>
447 <title>Introduction</title>
448 <body>
449
450 <p>
451 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
452 If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what is
453 used as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
454 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
455 Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
456 </p>
457
458 </body>
459 </subsection>
460
461 <subsection>
462 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
463 </subsection>
464
465 <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
466 <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, tools specific to the chosen
471 filesystem are available:
472 </p>
473
474 <table>
475 <tr>
476 <th>Filesystem</th>
477 <th>Creation Command</th>
478 </tr>
479 <tr>
480 <ti>ext2</ti>
481 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
482 </tr>
483 <tr>
484 <ti>ext3</ti>
485 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
486 </tr>
487 </table>
488
489 <p>
490 For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
491 example) as ext2, and the <path>/usr</path>, <path>/var</path>, and
492 <path>/home</path> partitions (<path>/dev/sda4</path>, <path>5</path>
493 and <path>6</path> in our example, respectively) as ext3, you would use:
494 </p>
495
496 <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
497 # <i>mke2fs /dev/sda1</i>
498 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
499 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda5</i>
500 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda6</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 </body>
504 </subsection>
505 <subsection>
506 <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
507 <body>
508
509 <p>
510 <c>mkswap</c> is the command used to initialize swap partitions:
511 </p>
512
513 <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
514 # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
519 </p>
520
521 <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
522 # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
523 </pre>
524
525 <p>
526 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
527 </p>
528
529 </body>
530 </subsection>
531 </section>
532 <section>
533 <title>Mounting</title>
534 <body>
535
536 <p>
537 Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
538 time to mount them using the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to first
539 create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. For
540 example:
541 </p>
542
543 <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
544 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo</i>
545 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
546 # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
547 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
548 # <i>mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo/var</i>
549 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
550 # <i>mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/gentoo/home</i>
551 </pre>
552
553 <note>
554 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
555 to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
556 This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
557 </note>
558
559 <p>
560 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
561 kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
562 </p>
563
564 <p>
565 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
566 Installation Files</uri>.
567 </p>
568
569 </body>
570 </section>
571 </sections>

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